"Whose sons go to school?"
Translation:Czyi synowie chodzą do szkoły?
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Basically, "iść" works in Present Continous - so "they are walking", "they are going".
"Chodzić" is for Present Simple - "they go", "they walk".
But if "they are walking" without any direction and/or purpose, that's "chodzić" as well.
So that's the basic differentiation. As they "go to school" generally, only "chodzić" works.
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Basically, the form of "whose" grammatically works like an adjective, there will be different forms for every grammatical person, as well as grammatical case. Those that you listed are all in Nominative.
"czyja" is feminine singular, "czyi" is masculine personal plural (virile), so it's used for groups with at least one male person - like here. "czyje" is either neuter singular or "not masculine-personal plural" (non-virile), so basically plurals of any words that do not denote male people.
It's a common mistake, so I am not in the least surprised that a native speaker said that. I can understand that she said "that's how Poles say it". But it is still a mistake.
Even if some mistakes aren't that big and natives make them, we still believe that it's safer to reject them. It would be rather bad if a learner used a sentence that this course has accepted as a correct and someone said to them "You know, this isn't actually correct Polish".
Anyway, "kogo" is the Genitive/Accusative form of "kto", meaning "who". It doesn't mean "whose".