https://www.duolingo.com/profile/KellyMoyes

Dative case - to need (нужно)

In dative case, is nuzhno (нужно) considered a noun or a verb? The lesson indicates that the translation for "Do you need vegetables?" is "Vam nuzhny ovoshchi?" or "Tebe nuzhny ovoshchi?" Dative case for neuter nouns changes the "o" to "y". I can't find an explanation anywhere. Is it conjugated like a verb? If so, I can't seem to find those conjugations anywhere online.

I'm very confused.

January 12, 2016

9 Comments

Sorted by top post

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Shady_arc

нужно and надо are predicate adverbs, нужно can also be classified as a short predicate adjective or at least a word derived from one. A more modern description for such impersonal words is category of state.

In any case, надо / нужно work as a predicate in the sentence. The person or other entity which "needs" something is in the Dative:

  • Мне нужно больше спать.
  • Мне надо работать.

The past forms are надо было and нужно было. You can in fact start with было (especially with нужно) but it is way more common to use было second—and this is the form we use in the course:

  • Мне надо было работать.
  • Нам нужно было больше читать.

MORE ADVANCED STUFF about their difference

Надо is considered a bit more colloquial, though it is not very well supported by actual usage (for one, надо is not unheard of in academic papers).

Нужно is derived from a short form of нужный, so you can use нужен/нужно/нужна/нужны with nouns, too. The object needed will be the grammatical subject of the sentence. Надо is mostly used with verbs (it has no gendered forms):

  • Мне нужен борщ. (you cannot use надо here)
January 12, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Berniebud

It's an adjective: "Нужный/Nuzhniy". It describes the objects that are needed.

You could think of the literal translation as "For someone, something is needed".

January 12, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/KellyMoyes

So, for example, I need a dress would be "mne nuzhnoe plat'e"? And "I need a shirt" would be "mne nuzhnaya rubashka"? Sorry. I'm still confused.

January 12, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/iyugov

"Нужно" - it's a short form: нужен (m), нужна (f), нужно (n), нужны (pl). We don't use full forms in such situations.

"I need a dress" - "мне нужно платье"

"I need a shirt" - "мне нужна рубашка"

January 12, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/KellyMoyes

That makes much more sense. Thank you.

January 12, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/TheHockeyist

Isn't нужно an adverb? It ends in -о.

January 12, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Norrius

It's an adjective, short form, singular neuter. Its ending changes depending on the number/gender; adverbs are undeclinable.

January 12, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/TheHockeyist

Oh. It makes sense. нужны is plural as you need plural vegetables.

January 12, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/KellyMoyes

Yes! I found the info I have on short adjectives and it makes total sense now. Thank you! It was driving me nuts.

January 12, 2016
Learn Russian in just 5 minutes a day. For free.