"Our people are good."
Translation:Nasi ludzie są dobrzy.
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"mos/mzw" are "męskoosobowy/męskozwierzęcy", so 'masculine personal' and 'masculine animal'. We never used such a distinction in our course. As you can see this is in one column, and we would call this column 'masculine animate'.
"mrz" is "męskorzeczowy", so... 'masculine object'? (wait, can 'object' serve as an adjective? I don't think so...) - anyway, this is what we call 'masculine inanimate'. As you see this only matters in Accusative.
Then you simply have "ż" = "żeński" (feminine), "n" = "nijaki" (neuter), and then in plural "mos" again (but this time I agree with this name, that's 'masculine personal plural'), and "nmos" is "niemęskoosobowy", so the 'not masculine-personal plural'.
Now that i have found the desktop version and the tips section i am definitely guessing less but I'm still confused about many things! Right now its when to use dobre/dobry and dobrze/dobrzy? The wiktionary link has just shown how many other variations there are... my poor brain!!!
Sentences like [noun] is/are [adjective] make use of the nominative case. So you choose the row 'nominative'. Since ludzie refers to a group of mixed gender (containing men), you need to choose the column with the plural gender 'virile'. And the cell will tell you exactly what you need here: 'dobrzy'.
You use Instrumental for a "[noun phrase] is [noun phrase]" sentence. If it was "Our people are good people", then it's indeed "Nasi ludzie są dobrymi ludźmi".
But this sentence is built as "[noun phrase] is [adjective]", and a standalone adjective doesn't change its case to Instrumental.
More info here: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/16373167