My translation is literal from a native English speaker's perspective, thus it IS actually rather nonsensical sounding. If I would re-translate your translation, "The bed is near the table", I would have thought возле or близко would come from my Russian-vocabulary limited mind. Please forgive me, I have only so far learnt around 500 VERY basic Russian words, and there are so many variations, for me right now, the word около is simply 'around' (I know now that this word could mean nearby too now that I further study it)... Hopefully once I get around 2000 odd words of Russian vocabs, I would be able to get to the more naunced understanding of each word...
By the way, "The bed is STANDING AT the table" actually conjures a rather bizarre image of a bed "on top of" the table. I know, I am learning now that на is basically "on" in English, but if we see the phrase, "The bed is at (on) the table", we would probably think of Генри Поттер performing some whichcraft! LOL
Возле, близко, около... any should work in this sentence. But "около" also works with time, for example, where the others don't. And in that kind of sentence "around" makes far more sense, that's probably why you have the meaning as "around" in your mind. That's not a bad thing as long as you remember that the meaning goes beyond just "around".
One very cute chat I had with a native Russian speaker said something like "около колокол" as "around a bell" as she makes circles with her second finger and said, "around a bell", that's how "около" as around got stuck in my brain at the moment. I know, I am weird that way...
The first part is definitely correct, the second sounds strange.
It sounds incomplete: as if you wanted to name some thing that’s standing on the table, but didn’t. It sounds like "I have a bed, and <something> is on the table".
If you wanted to say "I have a bed and it’s on the table", it’s better to add «она» 'it': У меня есть кровать, и она стоит на столе.
No. Возле is a preposition, it can’t be used without a noun. «У меня есть кровать, и на столе возле» sounds like 'I have a bed, and on the table close to'.
Also, «У меня есть кровать, и на столе» 'I have a bed, and on the table' still sounds unnatural because you don’t specify what is «на столе». The first question that comes to my mind when hearing it is «и ЧТО на столе?».
You know it is really hard to interpret when the words are not spoken clearly. He clearly says стала and not стола. In his speech he pronounces both vowels exactly the same. Exactly. If I use Google translate instead, there is a clear difference between the first and last vowel. If we are told to write what we hear, then what we hear should be spoken clearly.