"Nie widzę tego psa."
Translation:I do not see this dog.
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I'm a native English speaker. It's quite alright to say "I don't see this dog" even if its not visible to you.
Maybe it's a dog we were talking about just now, so conceptually its "this" dog (and "that" dog would be equally acceptable). However lets say we were discussing two dogs, and we just finished talking about one of them - then to distinguish it from the other dog, that is further away conceptually and in time, then we would say "this dog (of which you speak)"... but the bit in brackets is optional, and just makes it clearer, and is not the only way to further clarify.
another person in the conversation can see "this dog", even though you can't (you're in different room, on the phone etc.) and has just mentioned it. So you could use "this dog". Especially if the other person has referred to it as "this dog" or has referred to a number of dogs and you want to specify one in particular.
hmmm probably not much difference between this example and the one above... more of a specific case of example1 ... anyway...
HTH (hope this helps)
If I remember correctly what immery always writes, Polish has "ten/ten/tamten" while English has "this/that/that". So the conceptions of... closeness are a bit different. That is why we try to accept both "this" and "that" in every translation of Polish "ten", but "tamten" is already so far that it can only be "that".
The gender of the pronoun doesn't pay any role in it. And yes, both your examples are in Genitive.
The basic translation of "this" is "ten", and of "that" is "tamten". Those forms are Nominative (so they mostly serve as part of the subject) and masculine. The feminine form is "ta" and neuter "to".
Now, "widzieć" (to see) needs Accusative. In Accusative, it is important whether a masculine noun is 'animate' or 'non-animate'. The animate version is "tego" and non-animate is "ten". Feminine is "tej" and neuter is, again, "to".
When a verb that needed Accusative is negated, like here, you need Genitive. Genitive doesn't care about the notion of (non-)animate, luckily. So masculine is "tego", feminine is "tej", neuter is "tego".
These were translations of "this", when talking about "that", you just put "tam-" at the beginning.
The tips to the lesson mention the masculine genitive ending is u and (only) sometimes a. There is a shortage of examples of the u ending in the exercises. The exercises in this last unit are full of the masculine singular a ending and singular feminine endings in the genitive. Maybe it would be good if there were more other types of genitive endings in it such as plural ones and u endings?
Maybe you could include some speaking Polish practice in it too?. The French and German courses have this and all these grammar word endings are only a part of learning Polish, although I think just one or two sentences of students speaking in unit exercises would be enough. Any more might be deterring....