Latin for Duolingo: Clothing, Lesson 1
Salvete omnes! Welcome back to Latin for Duolingo. If you would like to catch up, you can find past lessons in the directory, a classified vocabulary list, and a Memrise course at these links:
Today we’ll learn some terms for clothing, as the Ancient Romans knew it. For today’s lesson, imagine yourself transported back in time to the streets of Rome during the time of Augustus Caesar. A future lesson, after I’ve had some time to do more research, will give terms for modern clothing equivalents.
Nouns, 1st declension
bracae, arum (pl.) = trousers, breeches, pants
caliga, ae = boot (worn by soldiers)
lana, ae = wool
palla, ae = shawl, cloak (usually for women, worn outdoors)
solea, ae = sandal, slipper
stola, ae = (woman’s) dress, robe
toga, ae = toga
tunica, ae = tunic
Nouns, 2nd declension
calceus, i = shoe, half-boot
cingulum, i = belt, girdle
linum, i = linen, flax
pallium, i = cloak, outer garment
paludamentum, i = military cloak, commonly worn by generals
sagum, i = short cloak, commonly worn by soldiers
vestimentum, i = garment, article of clothing, clothes (pl.)
vestis, vestis (f.) = clothing, clothes, robe
domus, domus (f.) = home, house
honestus, a, um = respectable, upright, honest
laneus, a, um = woolen, made of wool
linteus, a, um = made of linen
scorteus, a, um = made of leather
gero, gerere, gessi, gestus (3) = have on, wear (clothing) (also, carry, carry on, wage (war))
induo, induere, indui, indutus (3) = put on (clothing), dress in
Toga de lanā facta est. (Toga lanea est.) = A toga is made of wool.
Primā luce tunicam caeruleam induo. = At dawn I put on a blue tunic.
Puer togam praetextam gerit. = The boy wears a toga praetexta. (Boy’s garment with a narrow purple stripe; also worn by government officials).
Toga virilis est vestimentum viris. = The toga virilis is a garment for men.
Marcus togam albam induit; est togatus. = Marcus puts on a white toga; he is toga-wearing (toga-ed).
Marcus officium consulis cupit; togam candidam induit. = Marcus desires the office of consul; he puts on the toga candida. (The gleaming white toga worn by candidates for public office).
Et feminae et viri tunicas gerunt. = Both women and men wear tunics.
Homo in viā pallium gerit. = The man on the road wears a cloak.
Tunica est linea aut lanea. (Tunica de lino aut de lanā facta est.) = A tunic is (made of) linen or wool.
Milites hodie togas non gerunt. = Soldiers do not wear togas today. (However, the toga was originally a military garment, adopted for civilian wear after they realized it was impractical for fighting).
Miles sagum gerit. = The soldier wears a short cloak. (A sagum was a simplified version of the toga, while being much more practical as a uniform)*
Calceos induimus. = We put on shoes.
Dux paludamentum induit. = The general puts on the cloak.
Stola est vestis feminae maritae. = A stola is the garment of a married woman.
Mulier quae togam gerit non est honesta. = The woman who wears a toga is not respectable.
Romani bracas non gerunt; bracae sunt barbaris. = Romans do not wear trousers; trousers are for barbarians.
Calcei scortei sunt. = Shoes are made of leather.
Gaius est Romanus; vestimenta sua sunt tunica, toga, et calcei. = Gaius is a Roman; his garments are tunic, toga, and shoes.
Lucia est Romana; vestimenta sua sunt tunica, stola, palla, et soleae. = Lucia is a Roman; her garments are tunic, stola (dress), palla (shawl), and sandals.
Romani soleas domi gerunt. = At home, Romans wear sandals.
Although it has some more advanced grammar and vocabulary than we’ve encountered yet, you might enjoy this conversational Latin youtube video about a boy who misplaces his clothing
If, like me, you are fascinated with ancient clothing and how it was constructed, you may enjoy this youtube video of the reconstruction of the Lendbreen Tunic in Norway . It’s in Norwegian (with subtitles in English) so it is delightful to hear that language spoken as well. Imagine the countless hours of work that went into this most simple and basic garment, and you will appreciate why the highest praise for a Roman woman was “domi mansit, lanam fecit” (She stayed at home, she did her wool). And then for a very thorough exploration of the ancient history of textiles, you might enjoy reading Women’s Work: The first 20,000 Years.
I learned a lot making this lesson, and I hope I haven’t made any major errors. Next time, I’ll attempt to give modern clothing terms in Latin. Until then, valete et habete bonam fortunam!