"What is the relationship between past and future?"
Translation:Jaka jest relacja pomiędzy przeszłością a przyszłością?
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My first thought is that instead of "What is the relationship" it says "What (kind of) relationship is", and you know how we feel about changing the subject.
My second thought is that I am not sure if I would phrase it like that, although for sure it isn't 'very wrong'.
I'm not an expert here, but I think I'd risk saying that -łość is a suffix here, there are more nouns ending with it.
You also have adjectives "past" and "future" which are "przeszły" and "przyszły" respectively.
As for the etymology, I don't have an answer for that (not that the above is so useful :D).
You might also want to take a look at this comment:
This is always difficult to explain. I'd say that "czym" in Instrumental is used when you're asking for a definition. You could also notice that the answer ("Szczęście jest uczuciem" = "Luck is a feeling", nevermind if that's a correct answer) takes Instrumental.
Usually though, if in English you have "what" and some noun, you use a form of "jaki" and the Nominative case. "jaki" is associated with descriptions, and you're asking for a description of the relationship.
However, I am unable to find a rule/explanation that works in every situation...