help with ese/esa/eso - este/esta/esto
I don't know any rules when to use these, or the cues in the sentences that determine what to use. The problem is not when reading them in spanish and writing them in english, its the inverse, translating to spanish from english.
I know the groupings for that/those vs this/these, and the plurals (omitted from post title), so what I am looking for is rules, like what determines when to use ese vs esa, or esta vs es, etc
thanks in advance
http://spanish.about.com/od/pronouns/a/demonstrative_pronouns.htm this helped me to understand - it is simplistic...
As far as I know it is as simple as agreeing with the gender of the noun it refers to(esta/esa = feminine, este/ese = masculine). And when the gender is ambiguous or it sounds like the answer to the question "what is this/that?" then use the neuter in the answer(eso/esto). I heard respreng mention before you never use the neuter directly before a noun. Note in the example "what is that? That is a cat" "¿Que es eso? Eso es un gato" there is a verb between "eso" and "gato". You would never say "eso gato" . "Gato" is masculine and it you wanted to say "that cat" it would be "ese gato" or "esa gata".
este, esta, esto - this
estos, estas - these
ese, esa, eso - that
esos, esas - those
this and these have the t's
that and those have the so's
See the whole story at https://www.thoughtco.com/demonstrative-adjectives-3079092
And also check out https://www.thoughtco.com/demonstrative-pronouns-spanish-3079351
Este, esta, esto, estos y estas: denotan cercanía de lo señalado respecto al emisor.
Ese, esa, eso, esos y esas: denotan cercanía de lo señalado respecto al receptor.
Aquel, aquello, aquella, aquellos y aquellas: denotan distancia de lo señalado respecto al emisor y al receptor.
Esto, este y esta señalan lo presente.
Aquel, aquella y aquello señalan lo pasado o lo futuro.
Esto, este y esta. que se referirán a lo que acaba de mencionarse.
Aquel, aquella y aquello. que se referirán a lo que se mencionó con anterioridad.
For the beggar, a translation:
"This masculine, this feminine, this neutral, these masculine or neutral, these female: denote closeness of the indicated object with respect to the speaker/issuer.
That masculine, that feminine, that neutral, those masculine or neutral, those female: denote closeness of the indicated object with respect to the listener/receiver.
That over there masculine, that over there feminine, that over there neutral, those over there masculine or neutral, those over there female: denote distance of the indicated object with respect to both the speaker/issuer and the listener/receiver.
This masculine, this feminine, this neutral signal what is present.
That masculine, that feminine, that neutral signal what is past or what is future.
This masculine, this feminine, this neutral signal what was just mentioned.
That over there masculine, that over there feminine, that over there neutral signal what was previously mentioned."
This is great, but why does it say 3 years ago? isn't eso just been published? because I just received it as an email? It's kind of helpful but one needs it side by side with the spanish. Because That This etc. is English - thanks for the effort anyway (and I'm glad he gave you a lingot, some people are so generous!) If I had that lingot I would use it to change my shirt it badly needs to.