"My sister has many friends."
Translation:Moja siostra ma wiele koleżanek.
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We recently resigned from putting "colleague" as the main translation, because it narrows the meaning too much and in a way it can be even considered a false friend.
The problem is that "friend" is very vague from the Polish point of view. It doesn't say much about how close the friendship is. So "koleżanka" is someone whom you (probably) like, but is not among your closest friends (przyjaciele). But it can also be just a colleague from work. Or a schoolmate, or a classmate. Frankly, it's also a rather vague word.
Oh, that's actually a nice surprise that although you only had one letter wrong you still were failed, because this is in fact a mistake.
"wiele" is used with the 'not masculine-personal plural' nouns, so for example "many female friends" is "wiele przyjaciółek".
But for 'masculine-personal plural' nouns ("przyjaciele" imply there's at least one man among them), the right form is "wielu". "Moja siostra ma wielu przyjaciół".
"Przyjaciółek i koleżanek" - yes, they are exclusively female friends. These are Genitive forms though, of "przyjaciółki" and "koleżanki".
"przyjaciele" - yes. But the other word is "koledzy". That would be male/mixed friends. In this sentence, it would be "wielu przyjaciół/kolegów".
Yes, I'm afraid, the grammar doesn't work.
"mieć" takes the Accusative form, and Accusative for such a phrase is identical to Nominative. However, the way such a phrase is constructed is that any quantifier needs the Genitive case ("przyjaciół"), and also as "przyjaciele/przyjaciół" is a virile (masculine personal plural) noun - that means that it's "friends" in general, and not "female friends" exclusively - the quantifier needs its virile form "wielu".
Yeah, I know it's complicated...