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Indian Languages : Sanskrit (संस्कृत) ....... Topic 5

Portuguese : Bom Dia .... German : Guten Morgen .... English : Good Morning .... and now in Sanskrit : सुप्रभातम (Ggl Inp : suprabhatam) to alḷ... :)

How are you? :)))

In our last Discussion (Topic - 4 Go Here : https://www.duolingo.com/comment/13008679), we learnt some of the most basic words of Devanagri Scripṭ . We learnt basics of Vowels and Consonantṣ.

Today, I am taking you more deep in the ocean of Devnagari. Btw, today our concentration is only on Consonantṣ...

Carefully watch the figure of consonants again here :

Consonants

You can see the order of placement of consonants as, क , ख , ग , घ .............. स , ह (Ggl Inp : k , kh , g , gh ............. s , h) .

Ever imagined why ख has came after क ? Likewise why प comes before फ ? Or in a broader sense, why each and every consonant is neighbor of that particular consonant given in the figure and not any other? :)

Lets take a look at the Reason :

Consonants1

See the figure above.....

  • The first row beginning with क is called the VELAR Group, literally meaning Class क . It includes all the 5 Consonants in the 1st row.. Notice how the tongue remains in exactly the same place when you say these words out loud. All the sounds of this group are based in the throat...

Examples of velar consonants in English include "k" as in "keep", and "g" as in "good"

  • The second row beginning with च is called PALATAL Group, literally meaning Class च . It includes all the 5 Consonants in the 2nd row.. Palatal consonants are pronounced with the tongue touching the hard palate.

Examples of palatal consonants in English include "ch" as in "change" and "j" as in "job".

  • The third row beginning with ट is called RETROFLEX Group, literally meaning Class ट . It includes all the 5 Consonants in the 3rd row.. Retroflex consonants are pronounced with the tongue curled slightly backward and touching the front portion of the hard palate.

There are no retroflex consonants in English. As an example, try pronouncing the "t" in "tip", yet curl your tongue backward.

  • The fourth row beginning with त is called DENTAL Group, literally meaning Class त . It includes all the 5 Consonants in the 4th row.. Dental consonants are pronounced with the tip of the tongue touching the back of the upper front teeth.

Examples of dental consonants in English include the "th" in "the", and the "th" in "thin".

  • The fifth row beginning with प is called LABIAL Group, literally meaning Class प . It includes all the 5 Consonants in the 5th row.. Labial consonants are pronounced with the lips.

Examples of labial consonants in English include the "p" in "pit", the "b" in "boy", and the "m" in "man".

I challenge you, if you can pronounce any Labial consonant (pa, pha or fa, ba, bha and ma) without joining two lips, NO ONE caṇ.. :)

Try pronouncing all this consonant group by your self, and experience the wonder of "Well - Structured" Devanagari... :)

Likewise 6th and 7th rows constitute SONORANT and SIBILANT consonantṣ.....

Now, goto Columnṣ..

  • Unvoiced consonants are pronounced without vibrating the vocal cords. Examples of unvoiced consonants in English include the "s" in "sit", the "p" in "pit", the "t" in "time", etc.

  • Voiced consonants are pronounced by vibrating the vocal cords. Examples of voiced consonants in English include the "z" in "zoo", and the "g" in "good".

  • Unaspirated consonants are pronounced without a breath of air following the consonant. Contrast the pronunciation of the "p" in "spit" and the "p" in "pit"; the former is unaspirated, whereas the latter is aspirated.

  • Aspirated consonants are pronounced with a strong breath of air following the consonant, as the "p" in "pit".

  • The 5th Column is different from all the other columnṣ... Because we use the help of our NOSE to pronounce all the 5 consonants of that columṇ... "Nasal" consonants are pronounced with some air flowing through the nose.

Examples of nasal consonants in English include the "n" in "English", the "n" in "punch", and the "m" in "me".

To listen the pronunciation of each and every consonants, goto this site... http://www.chitrapurmath.net/sanskrit/Varnamala/varnamala.htm

And if you want to know more about the Devanagari, here is an another beautiful site: http://www.omniglot.com/language/articles/devanagari.htm

Enough for today.... See you lateṛ.. See you sooṇ... त्वं (you) अचिर (soon) दर्शनाय (see) (Ggl Inp : tvam achir darshanaay) .......... :)

Topic - 6 is here ... https://www.duolingo.com/comment/13058206

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