I don't think that this is so uniqe ;) Besides, you're are an English teacher not me.
Is talerz related to the German word teller? For some reason I love seeing words that are similar in German and in Polish ^^
Yes, and this word also came to Russian language as "тарелка", however the "r" and the "l" changed places
I've had it kicked out three times now, dish is the first thing that comes to ind and I put it in for the big void. I often forget the lesson part and go with what is most commonly used in everyday communication, that and how it's said. In Japan I knew what the words meant but often said it backwards from the way natives said it.