I'm not sure, but I guess it's "the name" for the digit like we have in Finnish. We use them as nouns. For reference our digits 1-5 are "yksi, kaksi, kolme, neljä, viisi": "Minulla on kolme kirjaa" = I have three books. But for example when we refer to grades we have received on an exam (with grading 1-5) we would use words "ykkönen, kakkonen, kolmonen, nelonen, vitonen". So we would say "Sain ykkösen kokeesta" = I got "a one" on the exam. The same goes for referring to a bus by its number: "Tulin kakkosella." = I took (the bus) (number) two. But those words appear mainly in spoken language.
I don't think we should be attempting to translate grades.
An "A" in a UK or Commonwealth GCSE exam (which runs from A* to G) does not mean the same thing as an "A" in an American high school diploma (which runs from A to D), and from what I can tell, many other countries differ again.
I doubt that Russian grades match exactly any other particular grading system - these are matters that are peculiar to the country involved.
I think пятёрка is something of a colloquial name. Here's some information: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grading_systems_by_country#Russia
They are 1–5, 5 (or 5+ in some cases) being the best. In practice though, as far as I know, it's rare to get below 2. Usually 2 is considered the minimum grade (it's a failing grade), although in some places it's 1 (called "кол"/"stake" colloquially). I guess 2 is like F and 1 is like F–.
Depends on the scale. Growing up in North Carolina, it was 7-point, so like this:
- 93% - 100% = A
- 85% - 92% = B
- 77% - 84% = C
- 70% - 76% = D
- <70% = F
Now, more schools and universities at least here are using the 10-point system, which is as follows:
- 90% - 100% = A
- 80% - 89% = B
- 70% - 79% = C
- 60% - 69% = D
- <60% = F
Because the scale is now larger, many schools and universities make up for the difference by adding pluses and minuses, like a 98% is an A+, and an 81% is a B-. I don't know the exact numbers on those though.
Studies have shown that the majority of Americans don't recognize their ignorance or lack of knowledge, and in fact are extremely confident that they are very knowledgeable. For instance, a study was done amongst "developed" countries where two surveys were given. One survey was a test on simple to complex mathematics, and the second was a survey taken after completing the test asking about how confident they were that they scored well. Americans consistently scored near the bottom of the participanting countries in terms of the performance on the math test, but scored at the very top in terms of how confident they were that they did well. In short, Americans are so ignorant and uneducated that they don't know how ignorant and uneducated they are. P.S. I'm an American, for any defensive Americans reading this.
In Russia nobody gets an "A", it's totally wrong to translate the Russian marks into American ones. Especially since many of your learners are not from the US. It's like translating "Я еду в Москву " into "I'm going to Washington". I'm getting totally annoyed here.
A is not a verb, it is a symbol used in American schools to designate exceptional academic rendimiento. The whole system as generally used is (with occasional modifications in some geographic locations): A = Outstanding, B = Above average, C = Average, D = Below average, F = Failed. You can see that these are similar to the Russian system, although using letters instead of numbers. (Note: teachers can often use the symbols + and - to fine tune these grades, e.g.: A- , B+ . etc.)