"Żaden lekarz nie pracuje w niedzielę!"
Translation:No doctor works on Sunday!
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If you just said 'Lekarz nie pracuje w niedzielę' that would mean 'The doctor doesn't work on Sunday'. To say that there does not exist a doctor who works on Sunday, you have to use 'żaden', which also requires that you negate the verb (note that double negatives work differently in Polish and in English).
Well, as that's rather a nonsense sentence, it's hard to translate it. You can perhaps go with "Żaden doktor nie nie pracuje w niedzielę" which makes an equal amount of sense (zero), or perhaps a more logical "Żaden doktor nie odpoczywa w niedzielę" (No doctor rests on Sunday).
"żaden" is a masculine singular form, "żadne" is either neuter singular or nonvirile (not masculine-personal plural).
"Polski jest trudny", "polski" is masculine here because it refers to the word "język" (language/tongue), which is a masculine noun. Yeah, it is difficult...
Yes, "niedzielę" is Accusative. Why? I seriously don't know, I just know that it works like that. For example with months, 'in April' is "w kwietniu" and that's Locative, as we'd expect. But days of the week, together with the word "weekend", take "w" + Accusative, that's just something one needs to remember.
On the other hand, English also uses "on" instead of "in" there, so Polish isn't the only language with an exception ;)