"What time is it?"
Translation:Która jest godzina?
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It should be OK, but the option with „jest” in the middle or just dropped completely is better.
Wouldn't 'jaki jest czas' be correct too? My Polish family use that quite often too.
"Jaki mamy czas?" is also used. But the most common (and often) is "Która godzina?"
Why is ktora the word to use for what in this case? Instead of Co or Jakie for example
It's just a phrase that you need to remember, because in terms of vocabulary, the idiomatic expressions between English and Polish are quite different here.
The more literal translation would be "Which hour is it?". We also often just say "Która godzina?", but "Która jest godzina?", being a full sentence, is a better way to ask strangers.
On the other hand, almost everyone has a phone in their pocket now, so it's not such a common question nowadays :D
Why is it not 'Która jest godziną'? Would you not use the instrumental case here?
No. You only do that if you compare a noun with another noun. „Która” is not a noun.