"Do you see a small child?"
Translation:Czy widzisz małe dziecko?
If we had a masculine noun here, it would be correct. Also if the verb needed Genitive, it would be correct. But "dziecko" is neuter and the sentence needs Accusative. Accusative for a neuter noun looks the same as its Nominative. And to match the case, you have to use "małe".
It's for questions that have a Yes/No answers, so mostly "do you" questions indeed.
It's also used for "Wolisz pizzę czy makaron?" (Do you prefer pizza or pasta), it means 'or' in such a question. And I guess it could be used at the beginning of this one as well, actually... anyway, it's not really that common as a question-making word.