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"Pwy dych chi?"

Translation:Who are you?

2 years ago

35 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/wisteria53

North Wales: Pwy dach chi?

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Dr.Gizmo
Dr.Gizmo
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Dych reminds me of dich in German, do they have any similarity? Or do they just sound similar? It helps me to remember dych's meaning though. :)

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/danieljwood

They sound sort of similar but I doubt they're related when it comes to etymology. dych is a verb , whereas dich is a pronoun (dich also refers to informal 2nd person pronoun, du, whereas dych is formal/plural 2nd person verb)... I hope that makes sense!

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/elbose86

Interesting observation! In that case I guess 'chi' is who, which is quite similar to the French 'qui' in a way - another possible similarity... Or 'pwy' is, and it's just a coincidence? Still getting used to Welsh word order...

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/JeffA2
JeffA2
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"who" is "pwy" "chi" is you for formal, or for plural.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/elbose86

Thanks.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/schizorb
schizorb
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So, the word order is the same as in English? I'm a bit confused because of this example:

"Who are you? = Who you are? = Pwy dych chi?"

I thought dych = you and chi = are.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/JeffA2
JeffA2
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In a standard declarative sentence the Welsh order is verb-subject-object. Unlike English this does not change in questions. So in English we have "You are!" and "Are you?" In Welsh the equivalents are "Dych chi!" and "Dych chi?"

The question word pwy doesn't change the order in the rest of the clause. So it is really just a coincidence that the word order is the same as in English in these cases.

pwy = who -- dych = are -- chi = you (formal or plural)

Speaking to a friend it would be 'pwy wyt ti?'

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/DW9988

Interestingly, "pwy"", "who", and "qui" share a distant root, but not with "chi" (which makes sense, bc pronoun "you" functions differently than pronoun "who"):

= pwy: From Proto-Celtic kʷēs, (compare Breton piv, Cornish piw, Old Irish cía), from Proto-Indo-European kʷis.

= who: From Middle English who, hwo, huo, wha, hwoa, hwa, from Old English hwā (dative hwām, genitive hwæs), from Proto-Germanic hwaz, from Proto-Indo-European kʷos, *kʷis.

= qui: From Middle French qui, from Old French qui, from Latin quī, from Old Latin quei, from Proto-Italic kʷoi, from Proto-Indo-European kʷos, *kʷis.

= chi: From Middle Welsh chwi, from Proto-Celtic swīs (compare Breton c’hwi, Cornish hwi, Old Irish síi), from Proto-Indo-European wos.

Celtic languages (such as Welsh) and Italic languages (such as French) are generally very dissimilar, but because they're both limbs of the massive the Proto-Indo-European language, you'll find some similarities: Welsh "credu" (believe), English "creed" and French "coeur" (heart) all ultimately related to Proto-Indo-European *ḱḗr (“heart”).

[ Credu, specifically: from Proto-Indo-European ḱred dʰeh₁- (“to place one's heart, i.e. to trust, believe”), compound phrase of oblique case form of ḱḗr (“heart”) and *dʰeh₁- (“to put, place, set”). ]

In some cases, words are borrowed from other languages: Welsh "ffenestr" borrowed from French "fenêtre" (window).

9 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/shwmae
shwmae
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Really interesting - diolch! Just to point out, GPC says that ffenestr came directly from Latin fenestra. French borrowings may include palffrai "palfrey", barwn "baron" and gwarant "warrant", though it's often difficult to tell whether they were first borrowed into English and then into Welsh.

9 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/MrGWallCymraeg

Depends on the dialect of German you speak :P But they are similar.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/MauriceDun
MauriceDun
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In this example is the end of dych and the beginning of chi pronounced as a longer version of ch?

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/HerrArbo
HerrArbo
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It's pronounced as one "ch", almost as if it were "dychi".

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/varigby
varigby
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So, the "ch" dych would be like "ach" in German, but not like "ich" ?

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SupEvan
SupEvan
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To be nit-picky, it's not completely the same sound. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_velar_fricative this is the one in german "ach", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_uvular_fricative this is the one used in Welsh.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/bendl2
bendl2
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To be really nit-picky (and this could depend on your dialect) but I would say that "ach" is typically a uvular fricative not a velar fricative. In general German uses the velar fricative, such as in the word "ich", but the uvular fricative is not entirely absent

7 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/HerrArbo
HerrArbo
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Correct. As far as I am aware that is the only way ch is pronounced in Welsh.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/luissntclra

Although most Welsh speakers do pronounce the >ch< sound as a voiceless uvular fricative, some actually articulate it as a voiceless velar fricative instead—so either of them is technically correct.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/shwmae
shwmae
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The uvular sound is far more common, so I'd advise that one if you can pronounce it. The velar fricative is found in places like certain parts of West Wales and, as you say, is fine as a replacement if the uvular sound is too hard or if you're learning in that area.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/xXBad_WolfXx
xXBad_WolfXx
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So if those sounds morph together, what "th" does one use when saying "Noswaith dda?" Do you separate the words, or do you just use the first "th" to say "dda" as well? It's always killed me trying to say that phrase since I don't know that :P

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Rae.F
Rae.F
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Or, third option, does the sound geminate? That is, is it pronounced for an extra beat?

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/MauriceDun
MauriceDun
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Thanks!

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/PauBofill
PauBofill
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What does "dych" mean, exactly? "Are"?

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Rae.F
Rae.F
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The mouseover text says "have" and Google translate says "do".

My inner linguist wants to know more!

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/PauBofill
PauBofill
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Me too! ;) let's see if someone knows better ;)

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Grace677542

What would the difference be between "Pwy dych chi" and "Pwy wyt ti" ?

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/rmcode
rmcode
Mod
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'Pwy dych chi' ('dach chi' in NW) is the formal or plural form of 'Who are you?"

'Pwy wyt ti' is the informal singular form.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/JackBond
JackBond
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So the tips said "y" was pronounced like "uh", but in this case it sounds to me like "ee". Is this like the Russian "some vowels don't always sound like we said they do", is this just a matter of flexible pronunciation, or is "uh" just a poor description of the pronunciation?

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Rae.F
Rae.F
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This should help:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dqv1geIlfFI
Long story short, it depends on whether it's at the start or the end of the word.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/CalumMcCauley

Is this used like 'what's your name'? Or is it more aggressive?

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/EllisVaughan
EllisVaughan
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Both, It will depend on tone. Though a better translation of "What's your name?" is "Beth ydy dy/eich enw (di/chi)"?.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/EduardAlex13
EduardAlex13
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I like how the grammar is the same in questions.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/KatherineF924019

What is the sound of chi, the ch part pronounced?

11 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/ibisc
ibisc
Mod
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See the pronunciation videos that we recommend - look on the web for ‘youtube welshplus pronunciation basics.

There are a couple of more technical explanations earlier in this discussion.

11 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/J0shking

How do you pronounce this?

1 month ago