"She said that her husband hit you."
Translation:Dedi ki onun kocası sana vurmuş.
-i vurmak never means to stab someone but other than that, the dictionary seems to be accurate. To stab someone is -i bıçaklamak. To hit someone (as in beating them) is -a vurmak, to shoot someone or something is -i vurmak. To hit something (with a bullet) is -i vurmak but to hit it with your hand or an object is still -a vurmak. To hit someone or something by accident (to hit a tree when looking down at the phone) is -a çarpmak.
I want to discuss the alternate translation, Onun kocasının sana vurduğunu dedi.
Onun --- genitive
kocasın --- her husband, possession suffix
kocasının --- possession suffix plus genitive
sana vurduğunu --- that he hit, and the -dik- is followed by the possession suffix again, so that vurduğunu is possessed by kocasının as a gerund would be.
Is that right?
If you say this, it would sound more natural for Turkish.
- Onun kocasının sana vurduğunu söyledi.
Don't use "dedi" in your sentence with this form:
Ruth, "Türkçe'yi öğreneceğim" dedi. (Someone said the sentence that was already said.)
Ruth, Türkçe'yi öğreneceğini söyledi. (It signals that someone restated that sentence.)
The other words are natural and correct.
I'm not a grammar expert so I might not use the correct lingo here but I want to point out a (minor) misunderstanding that you seem to have:
Kocası is "her husband", not kocasın; -n is just a buffer letter to merge two vowels (-s in "kocası" does just the same)
Also, the first -u after -duk in "vurduğunu" is indeed a possessive suffix but there's also a second -u after that which would be an accusative suffix (not sure that's what it's called in grammar books but it indicates being the object of the verb)
Not sure if you didn't already know these but just so you've got everything down! ;)