"Dw i'n hoffi Owen."
Translation:I like Owen.
Is this like as in friendship, or as in a crush? Or is it like English where it can be used either way?
Exactly like in English. If you want say other things, you could use:
Dw i'n ffansïo Owen (I fancy Owen)
Dw i'n caru Owen (I love Owen)
Dw i'n priodi Owen (I'm marrying Owen)
I rote "I like coffee" because I got taught what coffee was two seconds ago and hoffi sounds like coffee XD
Dw is the auxiliary. It's the present tense of the verb bod "be". It's followed by the subject i "I". To join the subject to the verbnoun hoffi "like", i.e. to make the present tense of hoffi, you need yn as the connector. Without the connecting yn the sentence makes no sense. Hope that explains it?
is "yn" a word that's untranslatable on its own? As far as I can tell, "dw i eisiau" literally translates to "I want," but "dw i'n hoffi" translates to something closer to "I am liking"...or am I way off base here?
No, you're not way off base. You're right yn is basically untranslatable.
Dw i'n hoffi = "I like/am liking"
Dw i'n helpu = "I help/am helping"
Dw i'n mynd = "I go/am going"
And this is the pattern with almost all sentences. Eisiau is a weird exception though that doesn't use yn.
Dw i eisiau = "I want/am wanting"
In meaning they're the same, but rwy'n is usually used in more formal contexts than dw i'n.
I may have missed this in some of the other comments, but when do you use "eisiau" and when do you use "hoffi" or whatever that is...