"Who would she help?"
Translation:Komu ona by pomogła?
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Since I don't have a Polish wife, I obviously lack the necessary resources to make qualified statements on this matter, however, I can consult the Polish National Corpus.
Sentences with this configuration and a -by particle at the end have 3 occurences in the corpus. Code:
[base="kto|co"] [pos!=interp] [pos=praet] [orth=by] [pos=aglt]? [orth="[?]"]
Sentences which place the past-stem verb at the end can be found 46 times. Code:
[base="kto|co"] [pos!=interp] [orth=by] [pos=aglt]? [pos=praet] [orth="[?]"]
This is a clear indication that the word order you propose is unfavourable. Since this is a course of basic Polish, we are rather strict about sentences which are technically correct, but rare and not very natural. Feel free to try the search yourself and take a look at the sample sentences.
It's a part of the conditional mood, "would help".
The conditional mood is formed by: a participle identical to the 3rd person Past Tense form (here: 'pomógł' for masculine, 'pomogła' for feminine', 'pomogli' for virile, 'pomogły' for nonvirile) + a form of the particle -by.
The particle is: -bym for 1st person singular, -byś for 2nd person singular, -by for 3rd person singular, and then -byśmy, -byście and again -by.
This particle may be either 'glued' at the end of the verb (pomogłaby) or it can be separated and stand in front of it (by pomogła). That is mostly a stylistic difference, but it's also one of those words that shouldn't end up at the end of the sentence, which makes it "Komu ona by pomogła?" rather than "Komu ona pomogłaby?".