"Jadę na wakacje."
Translation:I am going on vacation.
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Sounds strange to my ear. "idę" is going on foot, so it is as if you went to the nearby town on foot for your vacations, but that would be a surprising thing to say even then... it sounds more as if you were talking about 'taking a vacation from work', but that's rather "urlop".
When you take time off from work, you can say:
I go on leave/on vacation - Idę na urop/wakacje
When you go away or leave your town, you say:
I go on vacation - Jadę/ Wyjeżdżam na wakacje
Most of the time you do not say:
I go on foot on vacation - Idę na wakacje na piechotę
I walk (a lot) on vacation - (Dużo) Chodzę na wakacjach
Unfortunately, it's not safe. There are too many things to take into consideration here.
As for being somewhere (at the station), you can either use "na" + Locative or "w" + Locative. The general rule would be that "na" is used with more... open spaces (na stacji, na lotnisku), and "w" with closed ones (w sklepie, w szkole). But the number of exceptions will not be small, so that is just a very general rule of thumb.
Similarly, when going somewhere, you can either use "na" + Accusative or "do" + Genitive. The rule of thumb is the same and is also not very strict. "na stację", "na lotnisko", "do sklepu", "do szkoły".
"Jadę na wakacje"... well, it's just a fixed phrase. "Jadę na motorze" - well, you are 'on' a motorcycle when you ride it, right? So it is literally 'on'. Similarly 'na rowerze'. But if you take a car or a bus, you are not 'on' it but 'in it'. You rather won't say "Jadę w autobusie" (I am going/riding in a bus), you will say "Jadę autobusem" - use Instrumental, as you 'use' the bus like some kind of an 'instrument'.
Kinda both, but more of a second one. "wakacje" can refer to a break from school/university (almost certainly the summer one), but it can also refer to the trip. I feel that it's mostly a trip done in the summer, but I guess that's subjective. Anyway, "jadę" really means going somewhere.