"Nie lubię tego mężczyzny."
Translation:I do not like this man.
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Usually in English we talk about a language being someone's "mother tongue"... unless you mean it was the language of your father, in which case you could easily say (and everyone will understand you!) "Polish is my father's mother tongue".
But maybe you were just being jokey, or creative :D
I understand mezczyzny, a noun ending in an a declines as if it were a feminine noun but the previous example definitely involved psa with tego . Now tego would mean psa must be a masculine noun like mezczyzna but it appears to decline like a masculine noun. So there is a contradiction?
As far as I know, "don't" is accepted for "do not" throughout all of Duo's courses, and it's not exercise specific. However, if you made some error, then the 'correct' answer which Duo will show you will use "do not".
A screenshot would be good, or a copy/paste of the exact answer you gave.
The most natural (and acceptable throughout different age groups) equivalent in my opinion is "stary". Literally meaning "old", it's used also to mean "man", "dude" when addressing someone.
"mój stary" can mean "my old man", so refer (usually) to one's father, but sometimes to one's husband. This can easily be considered disrespectful, though.
It's a masculine adjective, so for a woman you'd need the feminine "stara". For a child... well, you'd use the child's gender, not treating it as neuter because the word "dziecko" is neuter ;)
I think that men may generally have more inclination to such talk, but I wouldn't consider it surprising if "stara" was used towards a woman among friends.
BTW, "twoja stara" is the Polish equivalent of "your mom" jokes.