Rozmawiałem z niemką dzisiaj o języków. Zgadzamy się że angielski jest prosto i łatwy jak mam coś żeby po porównywać. Angielski ma tylko 4 koniugacje, nie ma rodzajów, ma tylko jedą wersję z 'you', nie ma formalne słów, końcówki w ogolny nie zmieniają się, i liczba mnoga tylko dodaj 's' i już koniec (wyjątki się aplikują, proszę po czytaj zasady za szczegółowe). ;-)
I have a question that perhaps I could ask here. I was listening to a Pimsleur Polish exercise for pronunciation that used the phrase Przepraszam, czy pani rozumie po polsku? A Polish friend I spoke with then said it is not something a Polish person would use, but then was a little unsure having lived away from Poland for a long time now. He said Czy pani mówi po polsku? was fine, but not rozumie. As it is the very first lesson in the Pimsleur Polish, and if it is wrong, it seems I shouldn't really trust the course. It is odd that a native Polish speaker is the one giving the pronunciation if it is so wrong. One would expect that he'd have objected.
"Czy pani rozumie po polsku?" is fine. "Czy pani rozumie języka polskiego?" is grammatically wrong. That would be "Czy pani rozumie język polski?", as "rozumieć" takes Accusative. But that's "Do you understand the Polish language, ma'am?" and thus sounds rather strange to me. I'd recommend the first one.
After a second thought... I'm not sure if "rozumieć po polsku" doesn't sound impolite. Like... sarcastic? I now imagine two Polish natives who somehow have problems with understanding each other and one says "Do you even understand this language?".
"Czy pani rozumie języka polskiego?" is my fault. My friend actually said "Czy pani rozumie język polski?" as you do and I misremembered. And my friend thinks that your feeling of rozumieć po polsku being rude somehow was his impression too. When I first asked him the question after encountering the form in the Pimleur course he did say that possibly they said it like that somewhere, he couldn't say for sure, but that it would never be said like that in Warsaw where he's from.
I get what you're saying! You mean that "po polsku" is only applicable for "mówić" and wouldn't be right for "rozumieć"? After all, in English you can "speak in Polish" but you don't "understand in Polish". Ipso dicto, Google Translate (which I accept as not a particularly reliable source) produces forms of "Rozumieć" followed by "po polsku" with "polski" as an alternative. https://translate.google.co.uk/#en/pl/Do%20you%20speak%20Polish%3F%20Do%20you%20understand%20Polish%3F