"Is this boy evil?"
Translation:Czy ten chłopiec jest zły?
Why is 'jest' required when there is 'czy'? I read it 'is this boy is bad.' I think I'm having trouble with word order in the sentence? Or is the first part- czy ten chłopiec - is this boy plus the second part - ten chłopiec jest zły- this boy is bad. I'm confused and haven't found a good place for basic grammar and phonetic instruction.
czy does not mean "is" or "does". It's just a question marker.
Ten chłopiec jest zły. Statement -- "This boy is bad."
Czy ten chłopiec jest zły? Question -- "Is this boy bad?"
czy is not translated in the English sentence -- it's there to mark the sentence as a question, but in English we use word order rather than a question marker to do so.
You can ask a question simply by changing the dot in the sentence to a question mark. So "Ten chłopiec jest zły." changes into "Ten chłopiec jest zły?" and you have a question. But as this may be understood as "What?! This boy is evil?!" (showing surprise), it's safer to start with "Czy" to make it clear that it's a real Yes/No question.
There is no inversion in Polish questions.
But the usage depends on a context. In some contexts it's better to use "czy".
Actually after reading mixhal's comment and a bit of thinking : I think missing "czy" changes the meaning of the question. In "czy chłopiec jest zły" most obvious place to put stress is "czy", so we ask if the boy is evil. Without "czy" we doubt that the boy is evil.
Also I can't get over "evil" instead of upset in this sentence.
I'm having a lot of trouble using the correct form of "to". How many are there? I'm guessing 8, one for each gender plus one for non-personal masculine, and then times two for plurals. No?
It is like to say in Spanish from Latín America : Este chico es malo? In that order.
The only difference is that in Spanish they don't use an interrogative particle like "czy" at the beginning of a yes-or-no question.
"chłopiec zły" really sounds strange. You don't usually put the adjective after the noun in Polish.
You could say "Czy to zły chłopiec?" but it means "Is [this/that/it] an evil boy?", it changes the grammatical subject of the sentence.
We don't exactly need "czy", it's just useful to make it clear that this is a real yes/no question. Otherwise the sentence could be understood as a surprised "What? This boy is evil?".
If you ask why is "jest" needed, then it sounds as if you got something confused with Russian. You can't just omit "to be" in Polish.
jest is the verb "is".
czy can't be translated directly into English -- it marks the sentence as a question.
It's a little bit like the "do" in English questions such as "Did he laugh?" -- it doesn't have a meaning of its own and is just required grammatically in order to make a question (you can't say "Laughed he?").
You're right in a way, but it's just one of the forms. The 'masculine personal' plural Nominative form, to be exact.
See Tips&Notes for the skill "Demonstr." (click on the skill and press the lightbulb button, if you're using the app and don't see it, open Duolingo in an Internet browser) or check this article: https://www.clozemaster.com/blog/polish-demonstrative-pronouns/
My sentence is correct, as it can be either "czy ten chłopiec jest zły?" or "czy jest zły ten chopiec?"