"Your dad's bed is white."
Translation:Łóżko twojego taty jest białe.
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Ojciec is too formal for "dad". It should be "father", then.
P.S. It's rather "nie możemy powiedzieć", although technically "mówić" isn't wrong, but you rather want to say it once now.
"Duolingo nie to zaakceptował" is "Duolingo accepted not this". It should be "nie zaakceptował tego". Well, personally I'd say "nie zaakceptowało" treating this name as neuter, but I can't say that masculine is wrong...
Acceptable it may be, but word order kinda weird it has.
The strange thing, it somehow looks better to me if I imagine it as a question: someone is 95% sure that your father's bed is white, but asks it this way to get 100% sure. You could add ", prawda?" (", right?") at the end to make it more like a question. But it's still only 'better' and not 'good'.
Possessive pronouns behave exactly as adjectives: they have declension and the case of possessive pronoun needs to be the same as the case of the noun that it describes, and has to agree also the gender with gender of the noun ; see "taty" is Genitive singular http://sgjp.pl/leksemy/#14079/tata and "twojego" also Genitive singular masculine: http://sgjp.pl/leksemy/#150249/tw%C3%B3j (please note, that this dictionary lists this possessive pronoun as an adjective).
The Genitive case of "ojciec" is "ojca". The Genitive is used, because it describes the ownership (See this thread).
The word order "Twojego ojca łóżko jest białe" is unnatural in normal speech (it could be perhaps used in poetry). In this type of sentences the subject (łóżko) goes the first, then follow other nouns/pronouns that describe it (twojego ojca).
Seeing that you study spanish as well, Polish genitive is similar to spanish possesive, "La cama de tu papa es blanca". Saying "Es de tu papa, la cama blanca" is understandable but only for poetic purposes.
The genitive in cases like these could work as imaging an implicit of in front of the noun rather than 's for order purposes.