"Sometimes I am sad."
Translation:Czasami jestem smutna.
what is the difference between "smutna" and "smutny" ? Is one for when a woman is speaking and the other when a man is speaking?
Yes. Polish adjectives always have gender. Smutny is masculine, smutna feminine, smutne neuter. If a person describes themselves, they use their own male/female gender. You cannot describe a person with an adjective without assuming their gender.
If smutny is male and smutna is female, how do I guess this in English? I mean, how can I know when it refers to female or male adjective? I think Duolingo should put it into brackets or something, shouldn't it?
you use whichever you want. (or in this sentence the one you want to use to describe yourself)
unfortunately we can't add any additional information/ Even adding things in hints creates problems in the app.
Czasem jestem smutny. Czasami jestem smutna. Both are correct, apparently. Why are czasem and czasemi interchangeable? Is it because the verb is być?
It's because most of the adverbs in Polish are simply a version of an adjective, and Polish used to have a completely different pattern of adjective declension – that means, there are still active the so-called "short forms" of a few adjectives (which are simply the older pattern declensions) and that in turn produces a few "short version" adverbs that come from these adjectives. This is the case with „czasem” and „czasami” – they mean the same, but conform to different declension patterns.
If it helps, think of them as "You canst" vs. "You can", but the old declensions for adjectives are more popular in Polish than the old verb conjugations in English, as the change is more recent in Polish than the verbs change in English.
Tired, drove 200 kilomters to my veterans hospital for 10 AM. appt. and and a 3 Pm and got home late. Hard day for an old timer.
Sorry, but I'm still not sure I understand why smutna is used here instead of smutną.
If there's just an adjective, it takes nominative. If there's an additional noun, for example: "jestem smutną kobietą", then it takes the instrumental.