"Io non capisco."
Translation:I do not understand.
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This is how I understand this:
The verb is capire - to understand
In it's present tens (now), singular, first person form it is: Io capisco - I understand
In it's passato prossimo tens (resent) it is Io (ho) capito - I have understood
So you should use "capisco" if you are understanding what is being discussed right now . .
And use "capito" if your process of understanding has been completed . . resently.
The tense USES the participle with one of two verbs conjugated in the present tense: avere/essere. The English speaker initially recoils at translating ho veduto as I saw, wanting it To be the more literal “I have seen.” It is both. The rules for past tense use are somewhat complicated but as a start you should get used to pairing the participle with a conjugation of Avere or Essere and not freak too much if the translation seems incorrect. Example is “Io sono andato”. The general translation of “I went”. Not “I am gone”