"Verbs with infinitives in "-ąć" change "ą" to "ę" in all forms except the masculine singular."
Swan, Oscar (2008-10-12). Polish Verbs & Essentials of Grammar, Second Edition (Verbs and Essentials of Grammar Series) (Kindle Locations 1342-1344). McGraw-Hill Education. Kindle Edition.
It's the same issue in French and Spanish, but I don't know if Italian deals with the same issue of looking out for that one man in the group that throws the grammatical gender apart. :D Luckily, the difference seems to be of detail rather than of significance in terms of pronunciation. Or at least this is how it looks, comparing the endings in my notes.
I talked to Immery about this today. The category of this lesson is called Past Perfect. In English, "we have closed," is present perfect. Past perfect is "we had closed." They should've named this category Past Perfective. English doesn't have this. It is just simple past tense with a verb specific to the action. If that's the case though, then past perfect and present perfect in English are analogous to imperfective in Polish (and Russian, for that matter).
Yes, its basic meaning is "torba" (mostly a woman's handbag, a laptop bag, or a plastic bag), but the way in which English uses this word is so wide, that we decided to make it an acceptable translation for some other things - I believe for a suitcase and a backpack.
At least it's not the hat situation, in which we feel the division of meaning between "kapelusz" and "czapka" is around 50/50 and therefore those translations are equal...
Handbag and backpack/rucksack were the words I would have placed beneath the word “bag”, but not a suitcase. Suitcases are usually built from a hard shell, while bags of any kind consist of leather or any tight textile, but without a fixed shape. On the other hand, I never consulted a native English speaker, either from the BrE or AmE universe, to hear what they would throw in the “bag pot” of prototypes.
I think that kapelusz and czapka should be distinguished in a stricter sense than those two aforementioned means of “flexible containers”. (verbatim OED)