"Nie usłyszeliśmy wilka."
Translation:We have not heard the wolf.
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But he did hear you. He also saw you and is standing right behind you in this very moment.
Hoe fo you differentiate between "the wolf" and "a wolf", as yhete is quite a difference ("when you walk to the outhouse watch out for THE wolf vs A wolf")
In Polish? Usually you don't. Maybe sometimes you can decide that "the wolf" is the same as "this wolf" (Nie usłyszeliśmy tego wilka), but as Polish doesn't have articles, it doesn't show such a difference.
People are sometimes surprised by it and wonder how to show this very crucial difference... but this is just not anything that comes to a Polish mind, things like that are usually clear from the context.
I believe that the definite/indefinite article quite often corresponds with the Polish perfective/imperfective aspect, especially in negative sentences. I'd rather translate "We have not heard a wolf" to "Nie słyszeliśmy wilka" (it just didn't happen). If we say "the wolf", it's about the one wolf that you supposed us to hear (because you heard it), which makes it perfective in Polish.