The adjective has to match the noun it describes. So just to focus on singular, you have dobry (masculine), dobra (feminine) and dobre (neuter).
Your first assumption should be that a noun ending with a consonant is masculine, a noun ending with -a is feminine, and with -e, -ę or -o is neuter (with -e it can also be plural). The number of exceptions is not that small, but first focus on this.
"ten wino" doesn't work gramatically. The translation of "this" has to account for the grammatical gender of the noun it describes. "wino" is neuter, so the right form is "to". "to wino". Similarly, the adjective has to match the noun, and it does, "dobre" is the neuter form.
My first interpretation would indeed be "Wine is good in general", although it can also be "The wine is good" as in "Okay, I have several things in front of me on the table, I tasted the wine - yup, it's good".