"To duży pająk!"

Translation:This is a big spider!

February 14, 2016

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Can't it be: "This big spider!"?


No. Maybe if we had some neuter noun phrase (then "to" really could mean "this" as a determiner), but "pająk" is masculine. Ergo, your sentence (or rather an exlamation) would be "Ten duży pająk!"


Why does 'this is a big apple' = 'to jest duzy jablko' but the above sentance doesn't have jest in it?


Both versions are acceptable.

  • To duży pająk. / To jest duży pająk.
  • To duże jabłko. / To jest duże jabłko.

However, the 'jest' is kind of redundant, since it doesn't add any meaning.


Shouldn't it be 'To jest' for it to translate to 'this is'?


Shouldn't this be "Ten duży pająk", since pająk is a masculine noun? At least according to my Polish friend.

  • 2549

No, "to" does not work as a pronoun here - but if it were, "ten" could be the correct form. Please read the previous explanations.


I dont hear "pająk" when the lady says it in this sentence, fast mode...


I hear it, but I also hear it incorrectly, something like "pajonek". I will disable the audio exercises for this sentence.


There are no dates for this reply buy I also hear "pajonek" fine when picking words but it would be nice to actually hear "pająk"


The only thing we're able to disable are the type-what-you-hear exercises, the wrong audio is still played in all other exercises.

We're currently testing new audio, and I believe the one that sounds like 'pajonek' will soon be gone.


Would it be possible to show the gender (masculine/femenin/neutral) of the word in the hint pop-up?

Can we request that as a feature?

That would make vary easy to know the gender and use the appropriate adjective (whether it is smaczne/a/y).


Duolingo does not provide a way to teach the gender of a word.

Taking this sentence as an example, I do not have a way to know if "pająk" is masculine, femenin, or neutral. If Duolingo teaches us also the gender of the noun we could also learn the gender of the adjective, in this case "duży".


Can we request that as a feature?

I'm afraid not. This has been officially requested a few years ago and for now, there are no plans to introduce new features that would teach gender.

I do not have a way to know if "pająk" is masculine, femenin, or neutral.

This one is very easy actually. It ends in a hard consonant (-k), so you can be 99.9% certain that it's masculine.


Wouldn't it be Tamto duży pająk! if say that's?

  • 2549

In this case "To" replaces the expression made of demonstrative pronoun "to" [this] and the verb "jest" [is]. The demonstrative pronoun "tamto" does not have such an ability, and in fact, "tamto" written alone is weird in Polish, in this sentence it requires for example an additional "to" ;-) - "Tamto, to duży pająk"

The special word "to"

"To" is a special word, or rather 5 words that have the same spelling.

1) One of the most important pronouns. They very often replace that, what in English is written this, it or even the (as Polish does not have articles). "To" is used for the nouns that have either neutral or unknown gender (while asking "what is this?" about an unknown object); there is also form "ta" for feminine nouns and "ten" for masculine.

2) A particle, that replaces verb "być" (to be) in complex predicate: "Pies to zwierzę" (Dog is an animal); "Warszawa to stolica Polski" (Warsaw is the capital of Poland) , "Ania to dobra uczennica" (Ania is a good student) , "Czas to pieniądz" (Time is money); This particle may also replace a contruction "to jest" (this is, it is): This is the case here: "To ja" (This is me), "Kto to?" (who is this?), "To prawda" (This is true), "To tu" (It is here), "To za daleko" (It is too far away), "To duży pająk!" (This is a big spider!)

Attention 1: "To to jabłko, o którym mówimy" (This is the apple that we are talking about) - here are 2x "to": case 1 and case 2, side by side!

Attention 2: With "to", you have to use the noun in nominative case: "Pies to zwierzę"; "Warszawa to stolica Polski"; "Ania to dobra uczennica". With "jest" you have to use the noun in instrumental case: "Pies jest zwierzęciem"; "Warszawa jest stolicą Polski"; "Ania jest dobrą uczennicą". This thread can also be interesting: "To jest kaczka"

3) A connective that joins two sentences, of which the second is the consequence of the first: "Zdejmij koszulę, to ci przyszyję guzik" (Take off the shirt, then I'll sew the button), "Przyjechał wcześnie, to dużo załatwił" (He came early, so he arranged a lot). It may also connect sentences in a dialogue: "Kupiłem chleb. -- To dobrze." (I bought bread. -- Good.); "Przestępczość wzrasta. -- To źle" (The crime rate is rising. -- Too bad"); "Pewnie on ukradł konia! -- To, to, to, to!" (It was probably him to steal the horse! -- Yes, yes, yes, yes!);

Attention: In this sample dialogue: "Źle wyglądasz. Are you sick? -- To nie to. Mój kot dziś zdechł." (You look bad. Are you sick? -- No, it's not that. My cat died today.) - there are 2x "to": case 3 and case 1. The phrase "To nie to" or "Nie, to nie to" is a very popular expression serving as an introduction to explanation of negative answer.

4) A particle serving for greater expression: "Któż to przyszedł?" (Who came!?); "A to się wszyscy zdziwią!" (Oh, everybody will be surprised!)

5) A particle serving in a sentence as a sort of interlude, for example to separate the known (or obvious information) from something new, or to put more stress on that: "W zeszłym roku o tej porze, to lało" (Last year in this season, it was heavily raining); "Tę książkę, to pamiętaj mi oddać" (That book, well, remember to give it back to me).


This may be also interesting to read: "to" (in Polish)


Thank you for this. Being around native polish people, this word is used frequently and now I understand why. It will take awhile for me to learn all of these permutations.


no. we never use tamto in "that is", only in "that spider" - "tamten pająk"


Could this be 'it is a big spider' or would that be different?

  • 2549

Could this be 'it is a big spider'

Yes. Both "it" and "this" can be translated into Polish to, and to can be translated as "it" or "this". No big difference in Polish.


Check took "To duże pająk" - as far as I understood now, it should be "duży"?


Why isn't spider neutral gender?


Because it ends in a hard consonant.


I write:" this big spider" and my answer was incorrect dont know the reason, because this is should be "to jest" i believe. Please correct me here, thanks

  • 2549

The word "to" is one of more difficult Polish words to use... Because it is actually not one word, but 5 different words that have the same spelling.

It can be an indicative pronoun, but indicative pronouns need to agree with the gender and grammatic case of the noun they refer to. So it has different forms for different genders and cases. And the form "to" is the neuter gender in Nominative, Accusative (and Vocative, but that is probably never used), see http://sgjp.pl/leksemy/#148711/ten . But the noun "pająk" is masculine, not neuter (more precisely: masculine animate, type m2 http://sgjp.pl/leksemy/#266/paj%C4%85k - because it can be also a type of chandelier, which is masculine inanimate, type m3). Therefore in Polish, "this big spider" = "ten duży pająk", and "to" would be e.g. used with "child" or "tree", which have neuter gender: "this little child" = "to małe dziecko"; "this green tree" ="to zielone drzewo".

So, if there is no agreement of gender between "to" and the noun, it means, that this word is used in its other function: it is a particle that replaces the verb "jest" or the expression "to jest", which is a second meaning of the word "to": http://sgjp.pl/leksemy/#91426/to

More explanations - please read here: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/26090996

You can also find more helpful posts here: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/16296174


Thank you so much for your answer, was really helpfull. You guys do a great job

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