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"Sou" is the verb to be, "I am > Eu sou".
"Seu" is "your, its, his, her" when it refers to a masculine noun as in: "Is it your watch? > É seu esse relógio?"; "The dog play with its tail > O cachorro brinca com seu rabo"; "She likes her boyfriend > Ela gosta do seu namorado" and "The boy loves his new toy > O menino ama seu novo brinquedo"
Just to add, the feminine of "seu" is "sua", as in "He loves his girlfriend > Ele ama a sua namorada".
That's it! I hope it's helpful :D
In informal or formal Portuguese there is no difference in saying "Eu sou uma mulher" ("I am a woman") or "Eu sou mulher" ("I am woman"). But in essence there is a little difference: When you say "Eu sou uma mulher" ("I'm a woman"), you are saying that you are one of the women in the world. But when you say "Eu sou mulher" ("I am woman") you're talking about your nature, your essence. But none of that goes through the minds of those who are speaking. You will see native speakers using the two forms, like in English. I'm Brazilian.
Duolingo teaches Brazilian Portuguese.
Course description: https://www.duolingo.com/course/pt/en/Learn-Portuguese-Online
I'm Brazilian. The word "lady" is used to represent an important woman or a very educated woman. The word "dona" is synonymous with "senhora" when you refer to a woman specifically, but for women in general, we use "senhora". The word "Senhora" is used for older or married women, is also used in formal situations, if the woman is young and unmarried is used the word "moça".
Complementing what laise.mazu said: Besides the word "moça", we also use the word "senhorita". "Moça" is a more common word. "Senhorita" is a more unusual word. Nowadays we hardly use "senhorita". "Moça" has the meaning of "young" (female) and "senhorita" has the meaning of "miss". I am Brazilian.