"Welchen Orangensaft magst du?"
Translation:Which orange juice do you like?
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It does, but it's one of a few words with an ending that changes. It takes whatever ending would go on ein- in this case, you'd say "Du magst einen Orangensaft." so you say welchen. This also happens with the words jeder, dieser, mancher, and all of the possessive adjectives (mein, dein, sein, etc.)
The exception to this rule is that "ein" and the posessive adjectives never take -er endings (You don't say einer, meiner, deiner, etc.)
It's not your fault; Duolingo never properly teaches this rule.
See the article on Relative Pronouns:
Patricia's response is spot on. Sometimes English grammar can help clear up questions about German grammar. In English, "which" in this context is an interrogative adjective, which always indicates a question. Think of "welcher Orangensaft" as one entity, and then you can follow the basic rule of the German verb taking the second position, except in certain circumstances (like with dependent clauses). "Magst du Saft?" would just be "Do you like juice?" With interrogative modifiers, follow Patricia's advice. Cheers.