"Vera grew up and became a lawyer."
Translation:Вера выросла и стала юристом.
Юри́ст is anyone working in the jurisprudence (including legal advisors, judges, prosecutors), адвока́т is the lawyer that represents someone in court.
Yes, both юрист and адвокат are usually translated as 'lawyer'.
Actually, юрист sounds exactly like lawyer (i.e. someone who practices law). What people usually imagine when they talk about 'lawyers' is an attorney(-at-law)(US) or solicitor/barrister(-at-law)(UK), i.e. someone who represents you in legal proceedings - which is an адвокат. So the latter is a subcategory of the former.
At least, I assume it works the same in the Russian legal system. The words 'advocate' and jurist/lawyer are found in many European languages, so I'm pretty sure about those.
Yes, it means Vera grew up to become an adult. Probably, before this sentence, there was a story about some event that encouraged Vera to become a lawyer, or something like this.
What the actual ***?! I had the exact same sentence as it was previously, with "юрист", and Duo marked it wrong. It corrected it with "адвокат"...