Atalay, I cannot respond to your post and open up a seventh level; I therefore just 'respond' to my own query:
1) Thank you very much for your explanation! Could you clarify for me the practical meaning of "less definite" and "I will try to do it", please. Specifically, assuming Auntie Liz has just announced her visit, and Mom is heading to the kitchen saying, "I'll make a cake" – would she say "Pasta yaparım" or "Pasta yapacağım"? I mean, is the uncertainty about the result (gorgeous cake, nice cake, so-so cake, burnt cake) enough to make the situation indefinite and a try?
The outcome of the cake is not important, but she would most likely say "yaparım". You would say "yapacağım", when talking about a specific appointment (what I forgot to mention). For example: "Doğum gününe bir pasta yapacağım"
Sadly I can't explain it well my self, but this is what my teacher told me, when I was learning better Turkish in Turkey.
Well no. When the noun is object, you translate it with "the" only when it has an accusative suffix. So if the sentence had been "pastayı yapıyorum", then the correct translation would have contained "the". When the noun is subject, you can't really know without any context, so both "the" and absence of it should be considered correct.
This was a "Write what you hear" question for me, and I listened to this phrase 5 times in slow mode. It always sounded like "pasta yepür". The best I could make out of it was "pasta yapiyor", but this was marked wrong. Sorry, I am not able to hear "yapiyorum" even though I have a sharp ear :-((