"You are borrowing a phone from me."
Translation:Pożyczasz ode mnie telefon.
it is a special form of "od" that survived only before "mnie", and in "Our Father" prayer where "deliver us from evil" is "wybaw nas ode złego"
No. Firstly, it would be rather unpronouncable (if there's a context where it would make sense, it would be "ze mnie" anyway), secondly... no, it wouldn't make any sense.
What about borrowing a book from the library? Must it then be "z (biblioteki)", could it also be "od"?
How can you tell that the 'you' is singular? It doesn't change in english but affects the answer... 'pożyczasz' and 'pożyczacie' are singular and plural right?
Yes, you are right about which is which. As for the first question... you don't. English is ambiguous, and Duolingo sentences are just something that's taken out of context. So in 99% of the sentences, both singular 'you' and plural 'you' are equally probable and will both be starred answers. And in 1% or less something else in the sentence will specify it.
Why is "pożyczasz ode mnie komurka" not accepted? A phone can be a cell phone too, right?
It would be komórkę.
The sentences always seem to want telefon when the English translation says 'phone'; komórka is only correct when the sentence specifically says 'cellphone'. Don't know why, though. I've just got used to it.
I'd say that in 2019, when we say "phone" we almost always mean a cellphone, and that makes the word "komórka" getting less and less common, the need for distinction isn't very big nowadays.