"Dych chi wedi blino?"
Translation:Are you tired?
Which word in this sentence means what?
Translated word for word, you have
- dych "are"
- chi "you" (several people, or one person you're speaking to politely)
- wedi "after"
- blino "tiring"
Where English expresses the perfect with "have" (e.g. I have written a book) on the metaphor of possession, Welsh instead talks about being after the action (e.g. dw i wedi ysgrifennu llyfr, literally "am I after writing book").
So they don't say "I have become tired" using a word that means "have", but rather using a word that means "after" -- "I am after becoming-tired", dw i wedi blino.
English usually expresses tiredness with an adjective rather than a verb (we don't say "I have tired" but "I am tired"), so it may be helpful to think of wedi blino as a single expression or unit meaning "tired".
In this context, blino is a verb-noun meaning 'tiring', as in 'to tire', 'getting tired':
- Dw i'n blino. - I am getting tired.
The 'n/yn tells us that the action is continuing, incomplete.
Using wedi instead of yn marks the action as finished, complete - the action of 'getting tired' is over and I am now actually 'tired'.