"Have you had a bath yet?"
Translation:Dych chi wedi cael bath eto?
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Often used in a question form:
- (y)dych chi'n mynd i'r sinema heno?
In a positive statement you will sometimes come across rydych chi'n mynd... or r'ych chi'n mynd... (you are going...) where the 'ry-/r-' is a remnant of a positive marker in front of the verb. Often dropped, though, certainly in colloquial speech.
Similarly in the imperfect:
o'ch chi'n mynd? or oeddech chi'n mynd? - were you going...?.
ro'ch chi'n mynd... or roeddech chi'n mynd... - you were going... In this case, though, the 'r-' is not so often dropped in colloquial speech.
That might be used for 'Did you have a bath again?'
- Eto - 'again', or 'yet', depending on the context.
- (Y)dych chi wedi cael...? - Have you had/got...? - the perfect tense.
- Gest ti...? - Did you have/get...? - the simple past (preterite) tense.
If you go on to do more advanced Welsh, the perfect and simple past tenses in Welsh and English do not always exactly match up, but at the level of this introductory course it is simpler and probably better to equate the English and Welsh tenses.
If you do want to use Gest ti ...?, you need to remember that the object (bath) of a short-form (conjugated) verb (gest?) takes a soft mutation:
- Gest ti fath?
It helps me if I view eto as being a word that requires context: English uses two words, each with a slightly different shade of meaning, while Welsh uses one word that can include both of these meanings.
"Again" and "yet" do not really seem like two different concepts: they both refer to something that happened (or was happening) previously. "Again" implies that the the thing that happened has happened now. "Yet" has the implication that the thing that happened has continued up to this very moment.
For me, eto feels like an all-inclusive term for anything that happens more than one time, or could happen more than one time.
It's intriguing that the pronunciation of the Old English word gīet appears to have possibly morphed into our modern word, yet.
Again: another time; once more
Origin: Old English ongēan, ongægn, etc., of Germanic origin; related to German entgegen ‘opposite.’
Yet: up until the present or a specified or implied time; by now or then
Origin: Old English gīet(a), of unknown origin
The New Oxford American Dictionary (Kindle Locations 9894-9895). Oxford University Press. Kindle Edition.
Occasionally in English, we can also say "yet again", when something has repeated several times (usually implies some level of exasperation).
I wonder how Welsh would communicate that idea, eto eto, or with some other construction we haven't learned yet (and might be more advanced than this course), or can the right inflection on a single eto get the point across?
If you use wedi, you don't use yn -- it's one or the other.
Similarly with newydd in the meaning "just (now)", as in Dw i newydd gael bath "I just took a bath" -- no yn.
As for 'n, that's just the form of yn after vowels. For example, Mae Tomos yn canu "Tomos is singing" but Mae Dewi'n canu "Dewi is singing".
And remember that eisiau and angen do not use yn -- for example, Mae Dewi angen llyfr "Dewi needs a book" or Mae Dewi eisiau canu "Dewi wants to sing".
Explanation of 'n/yn and wedi here - https://www.duolingo.com/comment/13844144
An explanation of the patterns being introduced in each section is in the course notes for each section. To find the course notes generally, go to https://forum.duolingo.com/topic/924/hot and see 'Course tips and notes'. The 'duome' link there is useful for browsing all the notes in one place. We recommend reading the notes for each new section as you start it.