Translation:Where is dad?
Dad is performing emergency intervention surgery to preserve the quality of life on another smoker who is suffering from a medical crisis.
Smoke inhalation does not does not present itself as a hazard to only fire fighters. Smoking meat as a preservation means inhibits even microorganisms from being able to survive or thrive due to the fumigation chemicals concentration toxicity to biologic physiological functions such as cellular respiration.
You don't use "the" with family members, unless it's plural. So, for example, it's "Questa è mia mamma" (This is my Mom), but "Questi sono i miei genitori" (These are my parents). Same thing for sisters, aunts, uncles, etc. So it's "mia sorella", but "le mie sorelle". And so on.
This whole page is excruciating to read. Short answer regarding the exclusion of "il" in this example: Duolingo is extremely arbitrary, and consistency is not a virtue of the site. I'd keep a tally of all the contrary information that abounds in the lessons, but it'd be pointless. Why these issues persist for several years without a resolution is pretty baffling, though.
Interesting that "papa" is accepted, while "mama" isn't in this same exercise. Both are very common terms in american households, especially in those of Italian heritage. Admittedly, 'papa' is also used to refer to one's grandfather, whereas 'mama' isn't used for the corresponding 'grandmother' at least not to my knowledge.