"This is big."
Translation:To jest duże.
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If you had a whole noun phrase (duże jabłko, for example), it would be ok. But with an adjective, you should use "jest".
There would be some contexts where "To duże" would make sense as a short answer to something, but they rather wouldn't be "This is big" in English. And they are rather limited.
"To jest duży" on its own is wrong. If you add some masculine noun (To jest duży pies), then sure, it's fine, but on it's own, the dummy subject "to" is neuter and the right form is "duże".
Nominative is 'the most basic form', although with adjectives usually the masculine one is considered the basic one.
The adjective has to match the gender of what it describes. "duży" is a masculine singular form, "duża" is feminine singular, "duże" is either neuter singular or nonvirile (aka 'not masculine-personal plural').
The dummy pronoun "to" is neuter singular, hence the right form is "duże".