what a deep philosophical question.
On the "real meaning of words" level: człowiek is human being , osoba is person- in fictional world you include elves, dwarves,hobbits etc, in religion you include angels, devils, God(s) on the more casual level : a person of unknown gender is usually referred to as "osoba".
when counting people with numbers we more often use "osoby", when talking about people in general, or using words like "many" we use "ludzie".
the fact that a person is human is refered to as "człowiek.
One can talk about themselves using "człowiek" ="one".
"Człowiek" is not exclusive to male people, but in some sentences we would use "człowiek" to talk about a man , and " kobieta" to talk about a woman.
If that's so, then the "real meaning of words" level of "osoba" is "creature", right? But it's closer to being humane, right? Or is it not? o_O
If you want to get technical:
- „Osoba” – sentient being
- „Człowiek” – member of Homo sapiens sapiens species(or at least Homo genus)
You can find quite a lot of uses of „osoba” for dolphins in google, for example, especially since India declared them 'non-human persons' in 2014.
Read some Carl Jung, m8. Then you will realize the meaning behind this. Integrate your shadow ;)
Hmmm... I guess so, I don't think there's a better translation of 'individual' in this context.
I am not a good (instrumental)?
I was pretty sure that negation after byc or "absence of" signaled dative...but I guess here it is based more on identity rather than absence of a quality or characteristic--that is, the characteristic of being good?
I think you got something confused.
Firstly, no negation signals Dative. You must mean Genitive. But many learners take 'the negation rule' a lot too far. There IS NO rule like "negation causes Genitive. The rule is "negated Accusative turns into Genitive". And as Accusative is super common, it's not that surprising that people take it too far. Other cases stay the same when negated. So negated Instrumental is still Instrumental.