Latin for Duolingo: Conjunctions
Salvete omnes! Welcome back to Latin for Duolingo.
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Today we'll expand our use of conjunctions. Conjunctions are those little words that join other words, phrases, or clauses. We have already encountered some of the basic ones:
aut = or
et = and
itaque = therefore, and so
-que = and (This conjunction form is an enclitic, tacked on to the end of the second word to be joined, e.g. “pueri puellaeque” = boys and girls.)
sed = but
at = but
atque (ac) = and
aut...aut = either...or
autem (postpositive) = however, but, on the other hand
dum = while, as long as
enim (postpositive) = for, because, indeed, in fact
et...et = both...and
etiam = even, also
neque (nec) = and not, nor
neque...neque (nec...nec) = neither...nor
quod = because
si = if
tamen = yet, nevertheless
vel = or
absum, abesse, afui, afuturus (irreg.) = am away, am distant
ludo, ludere, lusi, lusus, 3 = play
Some subordinating conjunctions require use of the subjunctive mood, which won’t be introduced until much later; we will leave these until they can be introduced in context. Some conjunctions set up a temporal clause, which requires more verb tenses than just the present.
Note that there are 3 basic ways to say “and” = et, atque, and the enclitic –que. There are multiple ways to say “but” = sed, at (and others with slightly different shades of meaning). Some conjunctions are “postpositive.” This simply means that, by the rules of Latin syntax, they cannot stand first in a sentence or clause, but must appear after the first word or two.
I’m including some sentences from literature and quotations without necessarily introducing all vocabulary in them. As it is there are a lot of sentences, and it is sometimes difficult to portray all the different shades of meaning possible with the Latin, so I apologize in advance if some of them are a bit off.
Salvete, magistrae magistrique! = Greetings, ladies and gentlemen!
Valete, pueri puellaeque! = Goodbye, boys and girls!
Ave atque vale! = Hail and farewell!
Gaius flet atque clamat. = Gaius weeps and shouts.
Eam propter fidem atque virtutem (ejus) laudant. = They praise her because of her loyalty and courage.
Et cafeam et theam bibo. = I drink both coffee and tea.
Marcus et currit et ambulat. = Marcus both runs and walks.
Ita aut non? = Yes or no?
Nunc aut numquam. = Now or never.
Laboramus vel dormimus. = We work or we sleep.
Panem vel oryzam edunt? = Are they eating bread or rice?
Aut mors aut victoria. = Either death or victory.
Lego, sed scribis. = I read, but you write.
Ea coquit, at is edit. = She cooks, but he eats.
At Paula eis dicit, “Non est culpa mea!” = But Paula says to them, “It is not my fault!”
Sunt multi liberi in familiā, necque multam pecuniam habent. = There are many children in the family, and they do not have much money. (nor do they have much money)
Nec sine causā. = And not without reason.
Neque tempus neque pecuniam habeo. = I have neither time nor money.
Lucia neque cervisiam neque vinum bibit. = Lucia drinks neither beer nor wine.
Non cervisiam, sed vinum bibo. = I do not drink beer, but wine.
Si tibi placet = If it is pleasing to you, if you like, please;
Si vobis placet = please (to multiple persons)
Si chocolatum habeo, edo. = If I have chocolate, I eat it.
Dum spiro, spero. = While I breathe, I hope.
Dum feles abest, mures ludunt. = While the cat is away, the mice play.
Mater misera est quod pueri in culinā clamant. = Mother is miserable because the boys are shouting in the kitchen.
Tibi gratias ago quod mihi panem das. = I thank you because you give me bread.
Ubi est Gaius? Eum enim non video. = Where is Gaius? For I do not see him.
Quid tibi est? Nihil enim. = What’s the matter? (idiomatic, lit. what is it to you?) Nothing, really.
Liber de mensā cadit; itaque eum non videtis. = The book falls down from the table; and so/therefore you do not see it.
Tamen is non est senex, sed juvenis. = Nevertheless he is not old, but young.
Sacculus meus domi est; tamen pecuniam habeo. = My purse is at home; yet I have money.
Milites autem hostes non vident. = The soldiers, however, do not see the enemy.
Cultrum in scrinio non habeo; est autem culter in culinā. = I do not have a knife on the desk; however, there is a knife in the kitchen.
Etiam capillus unus habet umbram. (P. Syrus) = Even one hair has a shadow.
Aut viam inveniam, aut faciam. (Hannibal) = I will either find a way, or make one.
Thank you again for following along with these Latin lessons. I enjoy writing them and I learn a lot as I am doing so. I hope they are helpful to you as well. Valete et bonam fortunam omnibus vobis!
Thank you again!
I have a question about demonstratives: "Liber de mensā cadit; itaque eum non videtis." Does this mean 'id' is only applicable to lifeless objects with neuter grammatical gender?
Yes, the pronoun has to agree in gender with the noun it stands for. So if I say "I see it" specifically meaning the city, or the table (both feminine), "it" would be "eam." If I see the river, or the apple, it would be "id." And here, the book or perhaps the knife (masculine), would be "eum." Now, if there was not a clear antecedent, and the pronoun is obviously referring to an object or an abstract idea, "id" (or other neuter demonstratives not introduced yet, such as "illud" or "hoc") would be appropriate.