dil vs lisan
What is the difference between dil and lisan? As far as I know, they both mean 'language', but there should be some difference, shouldn't it?
Also, we can say 'dil bilimi' meaning 'linguistics'. Can we say 'lisan bilimi'?
Dil is of Turkish origin, lisan is of Arabic origin. Dil means both tongue in the physical sense and language, while lisan only refers to languages. Examples for dil can be "dil bilimi (linguistics), halk dili (folk speech), dil (as the organ, tongue), yabancı dil (foreign tongue), anadili (native tongue), bilgisayar dili (computer language), deaf and dumb language (sağır ve dilsiz dili)... You can use lisan or dil if you want to talk about languages in general. Aynı dili/lisanı konuşuyoruz (we are speaking the same language).
Take my one lingot for correct use of 'anadili' (instead of 'anadil', which is wrong). Good job!
and I think you would like to know that "lisan لسان" in Arabic means tongue and it is rarely used to refer to a language! Just to say :)
Interestingly, more popular word in Arabic for 'language' which I think is لغة (lughat) means 'dictionary' or 'glossary' in Turkish! :) Turkish spelling is 'lügat' and like 'lisan', this one is also a dying word.
Dil means both tongue and language. Lisan is a word of Arabic origin and means language. Dil is much more common, preferred and encouraged (at least by me!) for being a word fully of Turkic origin. :)
In addition to what has been said by others, 'lisan' is much more difficult to pronounce correctly than 'dil'. When you attach a suffix to the word 'lisan', take, for instance, the accusative marker 'ı', it becomes 'lisanı' and pronounced [lisa:nı] (note the lengthened 'a' sound), whereas 'dil' is always pronounced the same in all instances. (Actually the 'a' in the second syllable of 'lisan' is slightly lengthened even in its bare form, but it is more obvious when a suffix is added to the stem)
Sometimes people may deliberately use obsolete words instead of their modern/contemporary/actual counterparts to express their dislike towards the 'dil devrimi' (language revolution), and 'lisan' is one of these words. Some other examples include:
talebe --- öğrenci (student)
mektep --- okul (student)
tahsil --- eğitim (education)
muallim --- öğretmen (teacher)
All in all, the obvious translation of 'language' in Turkish is 'dil'. If you do not have a specific purpose, you are not supposed to use the word 'lisan'. Actually, as a native speaker, I am not used to hearing this 'lisan' word from anyone younger than 70 years old!
Well, I wonder about the pronunciation of lisan. Is the 'a' lengthened due to certain pronunciation rules of Turkish, or is a speaker supposed to learn that by heart?
The word 'lisan' is of Arabic origin. The original word is لسان. (Note the lengthened alif in the second syllable right to left). So, what requires the lengthening of 'a' is not the rules of Turkish, but the rules of Arabic. So if you do not want to mess with the rules of Arabic while you are learning Turkish, it is best to avoid using Arabic words whenever possible.
I suppose it's the same with 'kelime' and 'sözcük'. 'Kelime' is of Arabic origin, and 'sözcük' is the original Turkish word. Right?
Yes, 'kelime' is Arabic, and 'sözcük' is Turkish, but the use of 'kelime' in spoken and written language is much more common in modern Turkish than the word 'lisan'. As someone above pointed out, 'lisan' is just a dying word.
Also, you will see 'sözcük' more frequently in written language, whereas 'kelime' is the preferred one in spoken Turkish.
From what I know "dil" is more common whilst "lisan" can mean someone's way of talking. For example, someone's overall language, not necessarily language like English, French, Turkish, etc... . This is similar to "langue" and "langage" is French.
I am not an expert but I think "lisan bilimi" is incorrect.
Also if you stick to "dil" you will not get confused with "lisans" meaning a first degree.
They speak in different languages. - Farklı dillerde konuşuyorlar.
They speak in different tongues. - Farklı lisanlarda konuşuyorlar.
But tongue doesn't mean lisan. It is just an example of how frequently it is used.