"I like interesting books."
Translation:Lubię ciekawe książki.
I do not think so, ciekawe is very personal opinion, it is not describing the book.
Lubię książki biograficzne, (biography books) Lubię książki podróżnicze (travel books), Lubię książki ilustrowane ( I like illustrated books)
Those are the specific things that make those books different.
But in very specific context when someone asks you "Jakie lubisz książki ? Lubię książki CIEKAWE" would be ok.
Actually you were thinking well. You just need to be aware where it's appropriate to really stress it out. The answer to the question provided by immery is a nice example. Or you can tell that as an indirect way to say that the books somebody is recommending don't seem to be interesting to you.