I would say that "schaffen" is more like "create" while "bilden" is more like "form".
Also, the result of "bilden" usually consists of the subject (die elf Spieler bilden eine Mannschaft = the eleven players together are a team; or: the eleven players create a team consisting of themselves).
"Die elf Spieler schaffen eine Mannschaft" would imply to me that they work together to create a team which consists of other people -- they are only the ones who made the team but they are not on the team.
Many in this discussion area suggest that the "-schafft" of Wissenschafft should be thought of as "create" or "make" instead of the "brings" translation suggested by Duolingo. This may stem from a misguided view of what science actually is. It seems very strange to me to suggest that science (or scientists) create or make knowledge. Duolingo's translation makes a lot more sense to me since science "brings forth" knowledge, in the sense of discovering what was always there (removing that which covered our ignorance). To suggest that science "creates" knowledge reminds me of the arrogant scientist, thinking he can create man just as God did in the beginning, bending down for a handful of dust. Yet, as he does, God interrupts saying: "Wait, use your own dust"
Your alternate suggestions: "Science produces knowledge" or "Science establishes knowledge" do not make as much sense to me as the DuoLingo translation "Science brings knowledge" since they both seem to imply that a scientist is doing something more than merely uncovering what was already there. As I said above, I'm thinking of "bring" here in the sense of "brings forth". Also, I'm speaking from the point of view of what science is (for which I have at least some basis), and not from the point of view of a German expert (for which I have no basis). Also, I didn't mean to imply there was an "arrogance of science", just a misunderstanding of what science is.
tmRhema, while I do understand your point, and it is a rather interesting and important viewpoint, it is a commonly used phrase in German. Certainly because it is so illiterate. But there is another side to it. When I read the English translation "build" it didn't feel quite right. And personally I would prefer create. "er schafft" means "he accomplishes something after putting a lot of work into it." - "er geht schaffen." is still used in certain areas of Germany for "er geht arbeiten." (Don't use it though, it's bad German.) while "building something" can of course be hard work, it just doesn't have the same ring to it. Keep in mind though, this is just about feelings. Building is just as good a translation as creating. :)
Based on the German I learned as my first language many, many years ago before English became my primary language (i.e. not based on a dictionary), I would use "schaffen" = "produce," "create" or "accomplish" for something that is significant/surprising to do (e.g. "Science (actually) creates knowledge," or "Wir haben es geschafft" = "We (actually) accomplished it!"). I would use "machen" = "make" or "do" if the making is less significant/surprising (e.g. "Drei und drei macht sechs" = "Three plus three make six" or "Wir machen es jetzt" = "We are doing it now" with the emphasis on "now" rather than than on our being able to do it); and "tun" = "do" with an emphasis on what is being done rather than on what the outcome/product of that action/process is ("Das tut man nicht" = "One (simply) doesn't do that" or "Es tut mir Leid" = (literally) "It does me sorrow" = "I am sorry.")
I see no one has commented on this for a while, but I answered, "Science generates knowledge." Duo marked it wrong and in the red X - You used the wrong word section below, it said, "Science recreates knowledge." With "recreates" underlined. What would that even mean? And wouldn't "...generates knowledge." and "...brings knowledge." mean the same thing? I reported it with the "my answer should be accepted button."
I agree with you that "Science recreates knowledge" is a bizarre concept, far removed from what science is, regardless of its linguistic accuracy. As I wrote earlier, the translation "Science brings knowledge" makes a lot more sense in terms of what science is, and apparently is accurate language-wise.
schaffen is "manage" in the sense of "succeed in accomplishing" (Ich habe es nicht mehr geschafft, meine Hausaufgaben rechtzeitig zu machen = I didn't manage to complete my homework in time), not in the sense "handle, direct, govern, administer, take charge of".
It wouldn't make sense to say that "Science succeeds in accomplishing knowledge".
Also, knowledge is not the same as facts. When you teach children science at school, you are not creating facts, but you are creating knowledge (in the children). The facts exist even if there is nobody to know them, but knowledge comes about only when somebody learns about the facts.
Perhaps "Science brings about knowledge" or "Science creates knowledge" might be clearer.
schaffen can also mean "bring, procure" (though perhaps more commonly in prefixed forms such as "herbeischaffen, heranschaffen") or "create" (also in the prefixed form "erschaffen") and I think those are what is meant here.
So, meanings 1 or 2 of http://www.duden.de/rechtschreibung/schaffen , rather than meaning 4 which could be "manage" in the sense I mentioned above.
No; the -schaft ending of words such as Wissenschaft, Rechenschaft, Herrschaft, Botschaft has nothing to do with the separate noun Schaft "shaft".
The ending is instead related to the English ending -ship as in "relationship, hardship, friendship" -- which in turn is not related to the noun "ship" as in boat.
Science would be "knowledgeship" if you want to split it up like that. But not "knowledge shaft".
eplus17, I'm aware most of English came from combining two words together but the way we say it isn't as literal as, well, words like "kindergarten". that's the point I'm making. As with the example hospital, it came from the Latin hospes which became hospitalis which became the Medieval hospitale. the meaning of hospes is guest, host, or stranger not anything like "place for sick people"