"Widzę budynek parlamentu."
Translation:I can see the parliament building.
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Yes, English uses funny idioms here. UK English would use "Houses (pl) of Parliament", or just "Parliament" for short, as would Australian English to refer to the physical structure. US English uses "Congress". The wording "Building of Parliament" would mean the actual constructing of the building, not the building itself. Building in this usage is a gerund.
The use of "parliament" as an adjective is not correct...but I've heard it used sometimes as a noun adjunct. The correct adjective is "parliamentary" in any case.
I think the real problem here is that the actual buildings in different countries have different names: the Capitol Buildings in the US, The House/s of Parliament in the UK, The New Zealand Parliament Buildings.
So, in some cases "parliament" is obviously a noun-adjunct rather than an adjective.
To make it even more confused, those buildings often have further official names.
Possibly, rather rethink the intention of the Polish statement to be translated. If I were in Poland, and someone Polish came up to me and said that, what would they mean?
I'd suggest that the translation provided is really the only one.
If, on the other hand, I were in New Zealand and someone said that Polish sentence, it might be "a" parliament building.
That is really a policy question.
If you put an apostrophe in the right place, it's supposedly "unusual, but fine". Added "parliament's building".
The problem with your sentence wasn't the lack of "can". And "I can see" and "I see" really mean the same thing, at least to a Polish person. You don't translate "I can see" as if it was "I am able to see".
Seems that idiomatic English doesn't use it, see the comment above: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/14527310?comment_id=33195550