Turkish Alphabet and Numbers (with Pronunciation)
The Turkish alphabet has twenty nine letters. Here are the alphabet, numbers and examples of their pronunciation:
LETTERS WITH THEIR PRONUNCIATION:
- Aa (TR pronunciation: a) = "a" in "star"
- Bb (be) = "b" in "baby"
- Cc (ce) = "j" in "jam"
- Çç (çe) = "ch" in "chick"
- Dd (de) = "d" in "dot"
- Ee (e) = "a" in "ash", "e" in "bet"
- Ff (fe) = "f" in "fox"
- Gg (ge) = "g" in "get"
- Ğğ (yumuşak ge) = You can pronounce "ğ" as "y" sometimes, for examples with their pronunciations: "değil"(deyil) & "diğer"(diyer). And, it never begins a word.
- Hh (he) = "h" in "hey"
- Iı (ı) = last "e" in "teacher"
- İi (i) = first "e" in "teacher"
- Jj (je) = "s" in "pleasure" (like "je" in French)
- Kk (ke) = "c"/"k" in "cake"
- Ll (le) = "l" in "lemon"
- Mm (me) = "m" in "matter"
- Nn (ne) = "n" in "note"
- Oo (o) = "o" in "more"
- Öö (ö) = "u" in "fur" (the same as German)
- Pp (pe) = "p" in "pause"
- Rr (re) = "r" in "rent"
- Ss (se) = "s" in "some"
- Şş (şe) = "sh" in "ash"
- Tt (te) = "t" in "Turkish"
- Uu (u) = "u" in "ultimate"
- Üü (ü) = "e" in "few" in British English, (as "über" in German")
- Vv (ve) = "v" in "violet", "w" in "warn"
- Yy (ye) = "y" in "yes"
- Zz (ze) = "z" in "zoo"
- Sıfır = zero
- Bir = one
- İki = two
- Üç = three
- Dört = four
- Beş = five
- Altı = six
- Yedi = seven
- Sekiz = eight
- Dokuz = nine
- On = ten
- On bir = eleven
- On iki = twelve
- On üç = thirteen
- On dört = fourteen
- On beş = fifteen
- On altı = sixteen
- On yedi = seventeen
- On sekiz = eighteen
- On dokuz = nineteen
- Yirmi = twent
- Yirmi beş = twenty five
- Otuz = thirty
- Kırk = fourty
- Elli = fifty
- Altmış = sixty
- Yetmiş = seventy
- Seksen = eighty
- Doksan = ninety
- Yüz = (one) hundred / It is incorrect to say "bir yüz" in Turkish.
- Dokuz yüz = nine hundred
- Bin = (one) thousand / It is incorrect to say "bir bin" in Turkish.
- On bin = ten thousand
- Yüz bin = hundred thousand
- Milyon = Million
- Milyar = Billion
- Trilyon = Trillion
Letters and numbers are what I have learned very well through repetition (at Memrise). I was happy to „test out“ the numbers here at Duo :)
As for pronouncing letters, many people ask about /r/, that may sound like /sh/ or /zh/. Do mention that in your guide, please.
The letter /r/ often gets devoiced at the end of words (and especially at the end of phrases/sentences). It this case, it has the sound [ɾ̞̊], which to English speakers, sounds like an /sh/. I promise you though that it is not so and Turks will not understand you if you pronounce like a strong "sh" sound (I would know...this used to happen to me all the time :D ).
Until you have a quite high level and have a huge amount of input in Turkish (probably only possible if you live in Turkey or a Turkish neighborhood), it is better to just pronounce it as a rhotocized r.
Also, most native speakers have no idea that they do this :D
The letter /r/ ... ... sounds like an /sh/. ... Also, most native speakers have no idea that they do this :D
What are you talking about? :) This is a genuine question as I can't think of something even remotely related to what you have just described. What are we doing without realizing?
:D Case in point!
Think about how the -r in "geliyor" sounds as opposed to "rica" or "dört." Make sure that you pronounce the -r and don't drop it and try to think about how you would say it in normal speech at a normal pace. Don't pronounce it slowly or carefully. It has a slightly different almost hiss-like sound to it that sounds like an "sh" to most foreigners. I would even say "yapıyoş" before I went to Turkey. This is even more audible in the Black Sea Region, but it is spread out over all of Turkey (with the exception being maybe the Southeast).
A similar example in English is the -th sound. Many English speakers who have never studied linguistics don't even realize that there are two sounds for "th." We just sort of do it and know when either one is correct.
Very interesting. I actually understood what you mean, but I never thought it was audible at all. Seems to me that when you pronounce "r", the more you put the tip of your tongue towards the teeth, the more audible it becomes. If you put it slightly towards back, it almost disappears.
I was well aware of the 2 different -th sounds, by the way. More often than not, Turks have serious difficulty pronouncing either of them.
Yeah...the devoiced -r at the ends of words is really obvious to non-native speakers of Turkish, and it really throws us off. It makes it hard for foreigners to have a native-like pronunciation.
I guess I should have worded it as "many native English speakers." When you learn English in a classroom, it is super important for pronunciation, but I didn't even learn about them being different sounds until I was maybe 18 (a measly 5 years ago). We just never have to think about it, I guess :D
Hmm I never had a problem with this but now you mention our green and pleasant land I will listen out here in the Black Sea Region.
I think the main difference between American r and Turkish r is that Turkish r is more relaxed while you guys sort of roll your tongue as if you say 'ûrrr'. We just keep our tongue flat (or rounded if the vowel is rounded) and sometimes as you said we don't stop after making this sound and continue to give out our breath so we create a sound similar to 'sh'. But it happens in the middle of the upper palate as opposed to normal 'sh' which happens in the front part of the upper palate so it is a very lisp sound. we really don't realise it. I think it is just like that French people sometimes don't stop at the final consonant and create an extra vowel sound because of tongue laziness.
I think it is just like that French people sometimes don't stop at the final consonant and create an extra vowel sound because of tongue laziness.
Ha, but I think this is a bit different. I recently started learning French (again), but for a very long time I was aware of what you mentioned. I just understand why it is almost necessary. Without that extra vowel, when the next word starts with a consonant, it becomes insanely difficult to speak due to too many difficult consonants are clustered together. Think of "votre chat". "trş" is difficult to pronounce, so that extra vowel may actually be needed.
No, it's not that. You're talking about pronouncing the schwa to avoid consonant clusters like in "mercredi". (Because 'merkrdi' would be hard to pronounce). That's a different thing. What happens in French is something called "Chtis", whereby, in certain regions, words like "oui", "parti", "fini" are sometimes pronounced: ouich, partich, finich.
Well it doesn't have to be a "consonant" per se. Basically what happens is the speaker continues exhaling after the word has ended, which creates a faint "ş" sound. It happens in Turkish with "R". In French it happens with final "i". That's what Orde90 was referring to in his post in French. The reagents for the phenomenon are different letters but the outcome is similar.
Edit: Now that I have re-read Orde90's post, he did indeed say "final consonant" so perhaps he and I are talking about different things. Hmm.
I was actually talking about the schwa sound at the end of the words but your point is more related to our main topic which is Turkish r. I guess I had realized it before but I never thought about it. That's a great example.
Yes schwa. But I don't understand. We were talking about not stopping at the final consonant and producing an extra vowel, how do those examples at the end of your post relate to that?
I never thought about this. Maybe this might be the reason why they got used to do so because I was talking about the words at the very end of the sentence which doesn't connect to any other word. Or maybe I perceived it incorrectly.
I know what you mean, even they know that they will completely stop talking, they still do it. I think it may have 2 reasons: 1) the final parts of some words are still difficult to say, such as "la lettre" or "votre". Final e is silent and french r comes from the throat, so if you try to pronounce it you will realize that it's either very difficult without an additional vowel at the very end, or it will sound as if you are choking. 2) Like you said, habit.
Could you show me where it sounds like "sh" or "zh"? I thought it and couldn't find anything about it as a native speaker :/
Try pronouncing "bir" or "gelir". In careful speech, everyone produces a high quality R, but when casually speaking, we all say something like /birş/ and /gelirş/.
I don't think it's right to say it's like ş. It sounds a bit breathy like an ş but it's just a weakly produced alveolar r, and there's not really a "tap" so it's more like an approximant consonant. Can be devoiced at times too.
Not all of the above works for the main accents of English e.g. in my southern England English pronunciation •Ee (e) = "a" in "ash" is not right I think.
So I think it would be great if a native speaker could make a sound file reading the Turkish telephone alphabet A Ankara to Z Zonguldak and put it on the web (if there is not one already).
E is pronounced as in "ash" when followed by R, L, M, or N in the same syllable. Otherwise it's the 'e' in "etch".
You mean the Queen's English maybe! Perhaps Americans pronounce "ash" differently from us common Brits.
I didn't realise one Turkish letter could have 2 pronunciations. I'll have a listen this afternoon and see whether you might be right.
Isn't it the same sound as in "man"? My Collins gives the symbol "æ" for both.
I just listened to the US pronunciation of "ash" and I agree with you the "a" does sound like the "e" in "Erdoğan".
How do the Brits pronounce "ash"?
Edit: nevermind. I think we misunderstood each other at some point in the conversation ;p
The thing with IPA is that they are only rough guidelines. The American æ is different to the English one. I guess the American one is actually closer to the intended value, since theirs is in between a true "a" and "e". Whereas with the English one the tongue is lower and further back in the mouth.
It gives you a slightly more detailed idea of the actual phonetic values.
It does not matter to me as I live in Turkey but I just thought for those outside a sound file of the Turkish telephone alphabet might be useful.
I noticed this fairly early on, cos sometimes on the listening exercises I would mistake words like "ben" and "gel" for "ban" and "gal". But I didn't know it was only with L N M and R, I was just going by intuition when pronouncing words up to now.
The sound of e in this case is more open (the tongue is lower), so I guess it's like an ɛ or perhaps an æ, rather than an [e] sound as it is usually pronounced.