I've been translating 'Casáu ' as 'hate' all along. Suddenly Duolingo tells me that this is wrong and the only correct answer is 'Loathing'. What's going on? I'm going to claim a 'My answer should be accepted' for this.
On this Duo course it is better to translate standalone verb-nouns such as casáu, coginio, darllen,... using the forms 'to xxx' or xxxing'. This reinforces the point that they are verb-nouns and not nouns. This is mentioned in the notes at various points.
For example, the noun 'hate' is casineb not casáu. '(A) reading' is darlleniad, not darllen. '(A) cook' is cogydd.
In a dictionary there are abbreviations or other explanations to show that a particular form of a word is a noun, a verb-noun, a verb or an adjective and so on. This is not possible on Duo.
As far as I know, there is no such accent in Welsh as the one on the second "a" shown here
The acute accent does exist in Welsh (acen ddyrfachedig).
The acute accent over the a here just means that the syllable with that vowel is where the stress lies in pronouncing the word - casÁU rather than the expected CASau. There are a few similar words. Also, for example, carafán, clarinét, ...
to me, the voice always pronounces plural nouns ending with -au stressing that last syllable, so I'm remembering words as pronounced... afalAU, wyAU, llyfrAU. Is it correct?
No. All the ones you mention are accented on the last syllable but one, as is usual: afALau, WYau, LLYfrau.
If the emphasis is in the wrong place, then yes. I have just checked some examples of afalau, casáu and esgidiau and the emphasis is correct on those.
It should be available on most keyboards by using a modifier key of some sort. On Mac OS X you can identify the keyboard as 'Welsh' in Sys Prefs/Keyboard>Input Sources, which is the same basic layout as British but with common Welsh accents more easily available using the alt key:
- alt-o -> ô
- alt-w -> ŵ
- alt-y -> ŷ
- alt-8, i -> ï
- alt-7, a -> á
- alt-`, i -> ì
and so on. Also available on iOS if you keep a letter pressed for longer to bring up the extended characters for it.