I just said pork, which was not accepted. However, we all know that things that take articles in Italian (or French or Spanish) don't always need them in English, so la carne di maiale can be either "the pork" (if you're talking about a particular portion of pork) or just "pork" (if you're talking about the meat in general). So I think they should accept "pork."
Yes. Dates back to 1066 and the Norman invasion of Britain. The Normans brought a form of French over and the anglo-saxon terms got kept for the animals in the field (pig, cow or cattle, sheep) and the Norman terms (or versions thereof) for the meat for the table. (pork, beef, mutton).