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No. In the second statement, the "es sind" is uses like English "there are". Since there are multiple meters, you need to put to be in the plural. "Es sind drei Kilometer zur nächsten Stadt" - "There are three Kilometers to the next city".
In the first example, however you're simply making a statement about the subject "er": "Er ist groß" - "Wie groß?" - "Er ist zwei Meter groß." Zwei Meter modifies the "groß" part, not the subject itself.
Hope it helps and/or is accurate enough (I'm a native speaker but that doesn't mean I can explain things perfectly)