"The speaker has not arrived yet!"
Translation:La parolanto ankoraŭ ne alvenis!
Is it possible to use a compound tense in this kind of sentence? I was thinking 'estas alveninta' but then I wondered if an active participle can even be used like that when the verb doesn't have a direct object?
Yes, you can do it. I would recommend doing that only if you need it to express something special. Otherwise you are just making things more complicated.
I've typed:: la parolanto ne estas alveninta ankoraŭ.... and I got it wrong, don't know why... 'cuz grammatically in esperanto that is correct.
You'd never put "ankoraŭ" at the end of a sentence like that.
Adverbs generally come before the word they modify, and in the case of ankoraŭ, "generally" for all intents and purposes means "always." "La parolanto ankoraŭ ne alvenis!" is the best translation here.
Check out the usage note in the Reta Vortaro.
Click the link and search "ankoraux".
No, not really. Why would you say "estas aveninta" when you can say "alvenis"?
I guess it's probably not the most commonly used way to say it, it just occurred to me first, and seemed to be correct. When would you use the present perfect in Esperanto instead of the simple past?
Short answer: The best time to use a non-simple past in Esperanto is never. It's best to think of it as a trap for English speakers. (Yes, seriously.)
And ... erm ... the long answer? Does it actually have uses or is it entirely redundant?
Hey - sorry for the delay. I wasn't ignoring you. It just looks like the notification e-mail got buried under new messages.
So, no. I wouldn't say it's redundant. It's kind of like this. Just as I can say something like:
- Jen blua pilko (here's a blue ball.)
- La pilko estas blua.
I can also say:
- Jen kuranta viro (here's a running man)
- La viro estas kuranta.
Some lesson books will call this a "complex tense" but really it's nothing more than an adjective with "estas." It means something like "the man is in the state of running" or "the man is a running one".
This is why it's better to use the so-called "simple" tense when you can - and you always can. :-)